GROUP:

Females


health & safety concerns:
chemicals found
on average indivi-
dual range
entire group
Brain and nervous system 24 1-196 228
Reproduction and fertility 16 1-67 83
Immune system (including sensitization and allergies) 17 1-175 204
Birth defects and developmental delays 4 2-15 20
Respiratory system 4 1-4 6
Gastrointestinal (including liver) 4 1-55 65
Endocrine system 2 1-5 9
Chronic effects, general 2 1-5 10

Group members:

(122 People)

Anonymous Adult 2
Anonymous Adult 3
Anonymous Adult 4
Anonymous Adult 9
Anonymous Adult 13
Anonymous Adult 10
Anonymous Adult 16
Anonymous Adult 20
Anonymous Adult 21
Andrea Martin
Lucy Waletsky
Sharyle Patton
Lexi Rome
Monique Harden
Charlotte Brody
Anonymous Adult 1
Kathy Fowler
U.S. Representative Louise Slaughter
Jenna Meyer
Katrina Alcorn
Tiffany Kimball
Teri Olle
Margaret Hardin
Susan Comfort
Angela Strother
Jill
Anonymous
Rani Corey-Sheaffer
Anonymous
Meredith Buhalis
Darcy White
Jennifer Scheinz
Laurie Yung
Lisa
Anonymous
Leila Feldman
Susanne Green
Erika Schreder
Participant #2
Participant #8
Kelsey Wirth
Margie Roswell
Nina Damato
Nora Pouillon
Stephanie Berger
Participant #1
Adelaide Gomer
Ann Hunter-Welborn
Anonymous Adult
Winsome McIntosh
Judi Shils
Participant #18
Lynde Uihlein
Participant #2
Participant #20
Jessica Welborn
Alicia Wittink
Irene Crowe
Martha Davis
Emily Sayrs
Participant #6
Annette Gellert
Heather Gellert
Sara Corbett
May
Anonymous Child #17
Anonymous Mom #17
Bronwyn
Olivia Brune
Mary Brune
Tess
Anonymous Mom #13
Anonymous Child #13
Naomi Carrigg
Laura Spark
Anonymous Child #11
Anonymous Mom #11
Mckenzie Green
Susanne Fleek
Lauren
Christi
Hannelore Peters
Erika Schreder
Laurie Yung
Brynn Dickman
Hillary Dickman
Jennifer Scheinz
Natalie Comerford
Teri Olle
Anonymous Teen 20
Emma Spencer
Erin Schrode
Linda Loi
Sydney Blankers
Sarah Oswald
Asta Haman-Dicko
Laurie Mittelmann
Jenny Gilbertson
Anonymous Teen 11
Anonymous Teen 9
Christa Heffron
Caroline Burlingame
Monica Paulson
Donalin Cazeau
Natalie Klapper
Greta Hardin
Ruby Alcorn
Katrina Alcorn
Susan Comfort
Tracy Herndon
Maija West
Eva West
Liz
Jessica Assaf
Hope Atkins
Rizza Alcaria
Alex Wells
Dr. Beverly Wright
Vivian Chang
Jennifer Hill-Kelley
Suzie Canales
Jean Salone


Locations:

Chicago, IL
Newton, MA
Washington, DC
Atlanta, GA
Stanford, CA
San Francisco, CA
Fallbrook, CA
New York, NY
Sausalito, CA
Pleasantville, NY
Bolinas, CA
Mill Valley, CA
New Orleans, LA
Round Hill, VA
Rockville, MD
Upstate New York, NY
Oakland, CA
La Habra Heights, CA
Evergreen, CO
Gainesville, FL
Canton, GA
Dorchester, MA
Jamiaca Plain, MA
Ann Arbor, MI
Raytown, MO
Helena, MT
Missoula, MT
Portland, OR
Nashville, TN
Austin, TX
Burke, VA
Seattle, WA
Silver Spring, MD
Cambridge, MA
Baltimore, MD
Bethesda, MD
CA, USA
Ithaca, NY
Encinitas, CA
Ross, CA
VA, USA
Milwaukee, WI
CO, USA
Littleton, CO
MD, USA
Belvedere, CA
NY, USA
Riverside, CA
Alameda, CA
Boston, MA
Anchorage, AK
Minneapolis, MN
Colorado Springs, CO
Winchester, MA
Belmont, CA
Palm Beach Gardens, FL
San Leandro, CA
North Caldwell, NJ
Novato, CA
Los Angeles, CA
Langhorne, PA
University Place, WA
Lake Forest Park, WA
Taos, NM
Clinton, CT
San Rafael, CA
Tuolumne, CA
Manteca, CA
Green Bay, WI
Corpus Christi, TX



picture of group

Group: Females
Found 378-454 of 552 tested chemicals (122 participants)

The blood, urine, and breast milk of the "Females" group contained 378-454 of 552 industrial compounds, pollutants and other chemicals tested, including chemicals linked to brain and nervous system toxicity, reproductive toxicity and fertility problems, and immune system toxicity.

Summary of chemicals found in Females

chemical family level found in group health effects exposure routes
Alkylphenols7% high
Endocrine system Cosmetics, detergents, pesticides, paints, carpet and dry cleaning
BADGE-4OH26% high
44% moderate
Endocrine system Food can linings, dental sealants
Bisphenol A26% high
3% moderate
6% low
Polycarbonate plastics, food can linings, dental sealants
Brominated dioxins & furans67% moderate
Immune system (including sensitization and allergies) Dietary sources, fatty meat, dairy and fish
Cadmium50% high
Contaminated food and drinking water, cigarette smoke, contaminated factory air
Chlorinated dioxins & furans56% high
44% moderate
Immune system (including sensitization and allergies), Birth defects and developmental delays Dietary sources, fatty meat, dairy and fish
Lead45% high
47% moderate
8% low
Lead-based paint in older homes, household dust, vinyl products, tap water
Mercury71% high
14% moderate
14% low
Brain and nervous system Seafood, flu shots/vaccines, dental fillings
Methylmercury69% high
23% moderate
6% low
Dietary sources, particularly seafood
Nitro- and polycylic- musks32% high
42% moderate
10% low
Endocrine system, Cancer Cosmetics, perfumes, cleaning agents, detergents, soaps
Organochlorine Pesticides (OCs)13% high
19% moderate
38% low
Reproduction and fertility Contaminated food and drinking water
Organophosphate Pesticide metabolites (OPs)33% high
50% moderate
17% low
Brain and nervous system Contaminated food and drinking water
Parabens35% high
50% moderate
15% low
Personal care products, some foods, beverages, and medications
Perchlorate7% moderate
86% low
Hematologic (blood) system, Birth defects and developmental delays Contaminated food and drinking water
Perfluorochemicals (PFCs)21% high
49% moderate
30% low
Cancer, Birth defects and developmental delays, Endocrine system Stain- and grease-proof coatings on food packaging, couches, carpets, pans
Phthalates27% high
51% moderate
11% low
Endocrine system, Birth defects and developmental delays Cosmetics, paint, soft plastic, food packaging, and other consumer products
Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)33% moderate
67% low
Reproduction and fertility Air polluted by vehicles or factories, burned and fatty food
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)16% high
63% moderate
22% low
Reproduction and fertility, Brain and nervous system Foam furniture, carpet padding, computers, televisions, contaminated house dust, food
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)20% high
80% moderate
Brain and nervous system, Immune system (including sensitization and allergies) Dietary sources, fatty meat, dairy and fish
Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs)67% high
33% moderate
Gastrointestinal (including liver) Dietary sources, fatty meat, dairy and fish
Triclosan20% high
47% moderate
Endocrine system, Skin Antibacterial soap, toothpaste, cosmetics, cleaning products, shoe insoles, plastic cutting boards, other antibacterial items
Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (VOCs and SVOCs)100% found, not quantified Contaminated indoor and outdoor air

Test results by chemical family (see each chemical)

alkylphenols

1 of 2 found — see each chemical

Surfactants in cosmetics, paints, detergents. Toxic to wildlife. May harm hormone system.

Alkylphenols were measured in different units for some of the members of this group. Overall it was found in 3 of the 15 members tested in the group. The bars below are grouped by units:

  • geometric mean: results not quantified
  • found in 2 of 6 people in the group (vs. 3 of 9 in all EWG/Commonweal studies)
  • found in: Sharyle Patton, Charlotte Brody

found in 2 of 6 members of the group, but not quantified

 


Total Alkylphenols

  • geometric mean: 1.04 ng/g in blood serum (vs. 1.08 in all EWG/Commonweal studies)
  • found in 1 of 9 people in the group (vs. 2 of 19 in all EWG/Commonweal studies)
  • found in: Anonymous Adult 16
1.4ng/g in blood serum3.3


Total Alkylphenols

bisphenol a & badge

2 of 2 found

Metabolite of BADGE, used to make metal food can linings. Linked to hormone activity, skin and immune system toxicity and cancer.

3.02ng/mL in blood serum174


Detected in polycarbonate plastic, dental sealants, and resins that line metal cans. Linked to hormone disruption, birth defects, cancer with effects at very low doses.

Bisphenol A were measured in different units for some of the members of this group. Overall it was found in 6 of the 27 members tested in the group. The bars below are grouped by units:

0.445ng/mL in blood serum8.61


brominated dioxins & furans

3 of 12 found — see each chemical

Contaminants in flame retardants, pollutants from plastics. May harm hormone system.

7.72pg/g lipids in blood serum1440


Total Brominated dioxins & furans

chlorinated dioxins & furans

16 of 17 found — see each chemical

Pollutants from PVC production, industrial bleaching, and incineration. Cause cancer and may harm hormone system.

5pg/g lipids in blood serum1860


Total Chlorinated dioxins & furans

metals

4 of 6 found

In batteries, pigments, coatings, plastic and cigarette smoke. Cadmium causes cancer and is linked to birth defects and kidney damage.

  • geometric mean: 0.396 ppb in urine (vs. 0.339 in all EWG/Commonweal studies)
  • found in 3 of 6 people in the group (vs. 3 of 9 in all EWG/Commonweal studies)
  • found in: Lexi Rome, Andrea Martin, Monique Harden
0.5ppb in urine0.7


Neurotoxic heavy metal linked to IQ deficits and behavioral problems. Found in dust from chipping lead paint in older homes, and in some tap water.

0.222ug/dL in whole blood4.7


Mercury is used in dental fillings and to preserve vaccines; it is also a common pollutant in seafood. Mercury harms brain development and function.

7.0E-5ug/L in whole blood12


Forms from mercury, a pollutant from coal-fired power plants and other sources. Methylmercury accumulates in seafood and harms brain development and function.

0.0735ug/L in whole blood25.9


nitro- and polycylic- musks

6 of 11 found — see each chemical

Fragrance ingredients. Build up in human tissues. May harm hormone system.

0.0547ng/g in blood serum4.23


Total Nitro- and polycylic- musks

organochlorine pesticides (ocs)

26 of 31 found — see each chemical

Includes DDT, chlordane, other pesticides. Largely banned in the U.S. Build up in the human body over time. Cause cancer and reproductive harm.

Organochlorine Pesticides (OCs) were measured in different units for some of the members of this group. Overall it was found in 10 of the 10 members tested in the group. The bars below are grouped by units:

0.615ng/g lipids in blood serum2830


Total Organochlorine Pesticides (OCs)

organophosphate pesticide metabolites (ops)

6 of 9 found — see each chemical

Breakdown products from pesticides, including Dursban, formerly used in homes and currently used on produce. Can damage brain development.

4ppb in urine70.4


Total Organophosphate Pesticide metabolites (OPs)

parabens

6 of 6 found — see each chemical

Preservatives in cosmetics. Cause skin irritation and allergies. May be linked to hormone disruption and breast cancer.

8.39ug/g creatinine in urine3820


Total Parabens

perchlorate

1 of 1 found

Explosive component of solid rocket and missile fuel. Widespread contaminant of food, drinking water, and people. Disrupts thyroid hormones, particularly in women with lower iodide intake; may harm brain development.

0.2ug/L in urine5.6


perfluorochemicals (pfcs)

12 of 14 found — see each chemical

Includes Teflon, Scotchgard, Stainmaster. Linked to cancer and birth defects.

Perfluorochemicals (PFCs) were measured in different units for some of the members of this group. Overall it was found in 3 of the 3 members tested in the group. The bars below are grouped by units:

0.736ng/g in whole blood27.8


Total Perfluorochemicals (PFCs)

phthalates

13 of 13 found — see each chemical

In cosmetics, paint, and plastics. Linked to sperm damage and birth defects of male reproductive system.

Phthalates were measured in different units for some of the members of this group. Overall it was found in 55 of the 55 members tested in the group. The bars below are grouped by units:

found in 6 of 6 members of the group, but not quantified

 


Total Phthalates

102ug/g creatinine in urine10800


Total Phthalates

polyaromatic hydrocarbons (pahs)

8 of 18 found — see each chemical

Pollutants from burning gasoline and garbage. Linked to cancer. Accumulate in food chain.

130ng/g lipids in blood serum384


Total Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes)

41-47 of 53 found — see each chemical

Fire retardants in furniture foam, computers, and televisions. Accumulate in human tissues. May harm brain development.

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in different units for some of the members of this group. Overall it was found in 68 of the 68 members tested in the group. The bars below are grouped by units:

1.11ng/g lipids in blood serum314


Total Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)

polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs)

123-174 of 209 found — see each chemical

Banned industrial insulators and lubricants. Cause cancer and nervous system problems.

2.95ng/g lipids in blood serum600


Total Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

polychlorinated naphthalenes (pcns)

42-62 of 70 found — see each chemical

Wood preservatives, varnishes, machine lubricating oils, waste incineration. Cause liver and kidney damage.

0.0743ng/g lipids in blood serum3.43


Total Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs)

triclosan

1 of 1 found

Antibacterial agent (pesticide) in liquid hand soap, toothpaste, cosmetics, cleaning products, footwear, and plastic products labeled "antibacterial." Triclosan may disrupt thyroid hormones, and can form several chemicals with health and environmental concerns.

Triclosan were measured in different units for some of the members of this group. Overall it was found in 29 of the 30 members tested in the group. The bars below are grouped by units:

found in 9 of 10 members of the group, but not quantified

 


0.43ug/g creatinine in urine350


volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (vocs and svocs)

66 of 76 found — see each chemical

Used in wide range of household, craft, and industrial products. Common tap water and air pollutants. Includes neurotoxins and carcinogens.

found in 6 of 6 members of the group, but not quantified

 


Total Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (VOCs and SVOCs)

References/Notes

[1] CDC (2005). National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, Centers for Disease Control. http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport/. (Methylmercury results have been compared to total mercury in CDC biomonitoring.)