chemical Class

Hexachlorinated dioxin

Chemicals in the class:

1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDD (hexadioxin), 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD (hexadioxin), 1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDD (hexadioxin)

Found in these people:

Lexi Rome, Anonymous Adult 1, Charlotte Brody, Davis Baltz, Andrea Martin, Michael Lerner, Kathy Fowler, Sharyle Patton, Lucy Waletsky, U.S. Representative Louise Slaughter, Bill Moyers, Cord Blood Sample 18, Baby #3, Baby #2, Baby #5, Baby #4, Monique Harden, Cord Blood Sample 19, Cord Blood Sample 16, Cord Blood Sample 13, Cord Blood Sample 11, Baby #6, Baby #7, Baby #9, Baby #10, Baby #1, Baby #8, Cord Blood Sample 17

Found in these locations:

Mill Valley, CA; Round Hill, VA; Berkeley, CA; Sausalito, CA; Bolinas, CA; Rockville, MD; Pleasantville, NY; Upstate New York, NY; NJ, USA; New Orleans, LA


Laboratory animals. Dioxins cause toxicity to many organ systems in animals. Effects include liver and thyroid tumors; cardiovascular, skeletal, skin, immune, respiratory, neurological and reproductive toxicity; altered lipid and carbohydrate metabolism; reduced fertility and birth defects. Specific birth defects include reproductive tract and skeletal abnormalities, such as cleft palate (ATSDR 1998a). Dioxins are endocrine disruptors because they alter thyroid, reproductive, and adrenal hormone levels and function (ATSDR 1998a). Many of the lowest dose effects are developmental. For example, a one-time exposure to dioxin during fetal life can impair prostate development in male rats (Roman and Peterson 1998, Roman, et al. 1998, Timms, et al. 2002).

Humans. The effects of dioxins have been studied in humans who were exposed through diet, work, military service and industrial accidents. Dioxin (TCDD) is a known human carcinogen. It is associated with increased incidence of cancer in general and with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and lung and soft-tissue cancer in particular (ATSDR 1998a, NTP 2002). Soft tissue includes muscle, fat, blood vessels or any of the other tissues that support, surround and protect organs of the body. Dioxin is also associated with non-cancer disorders including skin lesions (chloracne), and nervous system toxicity (ATSDR 1998a). Associations with other types of disorders are emerging. For example, recent follow-up of people exposed to an industrial explosion in Seveso, Italy (the highest known population exposure to TCDD) suggest that dioxin may also be associated with breast cancer (Warner, et al. 2002), menstrual irregularities (Eskenazi, et al. 2002), altered thyroid function, and diabetes (Kogevinas 2001). Risk of developing diabetes or glucose intolerance is also increased in military personnel who were exposed to dioxin-contaminated herbicide (Agent Orange) in the Vietnam War (Longnecker, et al. 2001). Although developmental effects of dioxin have not been adequately studied in humans, several studies have linked dioxin to altered sex ratio (in favor of females) (Mocarelli, et al. 2000).

Hexachlorinated dioxin

Chlorinated dioxins are unwanted byproducts of the manufacture and burning of products that contain chlorine. Dioxins cause cancer in humans, and they are generally considered to be among the most toxic environmental contaminants known to man. As a class, dioxins are extremely toxic, persistent, bioaccumulative, and lipophilic ("fat-loving"). This means that dioxins build up and are stored in fatty tissues and fluids, such as breast milk, and can be passed on to fetuses and infants during pregnancy and lactation. Most people are exposed to dioxin through the food they eat, primarily from meat, dairy, fish and eggs.

In humans, dioxins are associated with cancer, skin lesions, damage to the nervous system and immune system, altered carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, thyroid disruption, altered menstrual cycling, and cardiovascular effects.

In laboratory animals, dioxins are known to cause a variety of effects including cancer and impaired reproductive, endocrine, cardiovascular, immune, respiratory, neurological and metabolic function. In addition, dioxins cause skin disease and birth defects.

Hexachlorinated dioxin has been found in 30 of the 34 people tested in EWG/Commonweal studies.

Top health concerns for Hexachlorinated dioxin (References)

health concern or target organ weight of evidence
Immune system (including sensitization and allergies)limited
Birth defects and developmental delaysunknown

Toxicity Classifications (References)

classification governing entity/references
Birth defects - weight of evidence unknown/unassessedATSDR (1998). Toxicological profile for chlorinated dibenzo-o-dioxins (CDDs): Health effects chapter.
Limited evidence in humans - immune system toxicityATSDR (1998). Toxicological profile for chlorinated dibenzo-o-dioxins (CDDs): Health effects chapter.