Federal PFAS Report Card

EWG has researched actions the federal government is committed to taking, or for which it faces congressionally mandated deadlines, to tackle the “forever chemicals” known as PFAS.

To track progress on these actions, we created a federal PFAS action report card, dividing the actions into categories. Actions are labeled:

  • “Pending” if the deadline falls within the current period (for instance, spring 2022) or a future period, and the action is not yet complete.
  • “Overdue” if the deadline falls within any previous period and is not complete.
  • “Partly complete” if at least one published interim milestone has been met by the agency, but additional milestones are due before the action can be considered complete.
  • “Completed” if the action was finalized within the current period or any previous period

We scored partly complete actions as complete for the purpose of reporting progress.

EWG used information from publicly available federal websites to compile report card milestones. In some cases, federal agencies volunteered additional information to clarify the status of actions.

The report card reflects the status of actions as of the date it is posted. After that, the status of any given action may change, and the updated status will be reflected in EWG’s next report card.

Environmental Protection Agency

43%
Actions due this time period and completed on time
 
100%
All actions due and completed prior to this time period
 
Protecting water, air and food from PFAS
Action Expected Date Status
Publish rule to monitor drinking water (UCMR)
Publish rule to monitor drinking water (UCMR)

The EPA drafted a rule requiring data collection on 29 PFAS under Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule 5, which the EPA uses to collect information on contaminants that are suspected in drinking water and do not have health-based standards established under the Safe Drinking Water Act. The data inform EPA regulatory determinations and risk-management decisions, ensure science-based decision-making and help make the protection of disadvantaged communities a priority. The final rule was published in December 2021.
Fall 2021 Completed
Publish drinking water advisories (GenX, PFBS)
Publish drinking water advisories (GenX, PFBS)

The Safe Drinking Water Act authorizes the EPA to issue health advisories for contaminants that are not regulated under the act. The health advisories provide information about health effects, testing methods and treatment techniques for unregulated contaminants of concern. The advisories offer a margin of protection by defining a level of drinking water concentration at or below a lifetime exposure level that is not anticipated to lead to adverse health effects. On June 15, 2022, EPA published health advisories for GenX and PFBS, as well as updated health advisories for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) that replace those EPA issued in 2016.
Spring 2022 Completed
Use Clean Water Act 308 letters to industry to gather data on industry discharges
Use Clean Water Act 308 letters to industry to gather data on industry discharges

The EPA uses Section 308 letters to get the information it needs to make regulatory decisions. Section 308 confers broad authority, but information requests must be reasonable. The EPA used this authority to request information from PFAS manufacturers in early 2022.
Spring 2022 Completed
Monitor fish tissue for PFAS
Monitor fish tissue for PFAS

During summer 2022, the EPA will collect fish tissue as part of the National Lakes Assessment for the first such study of PFAS to better understand where contamination is occurring, which PFAS are involved, and the severity of the problem. The new data will complement the EPA’s analyses of PFAS in fish tissue and highlight the importance protecting the communities who consume fish.
Summer 2022 Pending
Assess air quality risks and options to mitigate
Assess air quality risks and options to mitigate

The EPA is working to identify sources of PFAS air emissions, develop monitoring approaches for measuring stack emissions and ambient concentrations of PFAS, develop information on cost-effective cleanup technologies, and increase understanding of the fate and transport of PFAS air emissions. To collect more information on sources of PFAS air emissions, the EPA will use data from ongoing activities, like field tests, submissions to the Toxics Release Inventory, a federal database, and new requirements for reporting and recordkeeping under the Toxics Substance Control Act.

The EPA will determine whether PFAS air pollution disproportionately affects communities with environmental justice concerns and, by fall 2022, it will evaluate options for reducing contamination, including listing certain PFAS as hazardous air pollutants, pursuing other regulatory and non-regulatory approaches, or both.
Fall 2022 Pending
Publish final validated methods for 40 PFAS in eight environmental matrices
Publish final validated methods for 40 PFAS in eight environmental matrices

In collaboration with the Department of Defense, the EPA has published a draft single-laboratory validated method to detect up to 40 specific PFAS compounds in the environment (including in wastewater, surface water and biosolids). EPA plans to finalize the method by fall 2022.
Fall 2022 Pending
• Update methods for drinking water
Update methods for drinking water

To improve the effectiveness of its methods for identifying and monitoring emerging PFAS, the EPA will evaluate previously published methods for monitoring PFAS in drinking water, like EPA Methods 533, used to identify 25 PFAS and Method 537.1, used to identify 18 PFAS.
Fall 2024 Pending
Propose drinking water standards for PFOA and PFOS
Propose drinking standards (PFOA/PFOS)

The EPA is developing National Primary Drinking Water Regulations, or NPDWR, for PFOA and PFOS – legally enforceable primary standards and treatment techniques that apply to public water systems. The EPA is consulting with stakeholders before proposing the NPDWR for PFOA and PFOS. The EPA is expected to release the proposed rule in fall 2022 and the final rule in fall 2023.
Fall 2022 Pending
Final drinking water standards for PFOA and PFOS
Final drinking water standards for PFOA and PFOS

The EPA is developing National Primary Drinking Water Regulations, or NPDWR, for PFOA and PFAS – legally enforceable primary standards and treatment techniques that apply to public water systems. NPDWRs protect public health by limiting the levels of contaminants in drinking water. EPA is expected to release the proposed rule in fall 2022 and the final rule in fall 2023.
Fall 2023 Pending
Propose restrictions on industrial dischargers – organic chemicals, plastics and synthetic fibers
Propose restrictions on industrial dischargers – organic chemicals, plastics and synthetic fibers

Effluent limitations guidelines, or ELGs, are one of the EPA’s tools to limit pollutants from entering the nation’s waters. They set national limits on the level of specified pollutants in wastewater discharged into surface waters and municipal sewage treatment facilities. The EPA has conducted a PFAS multi-industry study to inform the extent and nature of PFAS discharges and will propose a rule in summer 2023 to restrict PFAS discharges from PFAS manufacturers and formulators in this industrial category.
Summer 2023 Pending
Propose restrictions on industrial dischargers – metal finishing and electroplating
Propose restrictions on industrial dischargers – metal finishing and electroplating

Effluent limitations guidelines, or ELGs, are a one of the EPA’s tools to limit pollutants from entering the nation’s waters. They set national limits on the level of specified pollutants in wastewater discharged into surface waters and municipal sewage treatment facilities. The EPA has conducted a PFAS multi-industry study to inform the extent and nature of PFAS discharges and will propose a rule in summer 2024 for metal finishing and electroplating dischargers.
Summer 2024 Pending
Complete studies on industrial dischargers –electrial and electronic components, textile mills and landfills
Complete studies on industrial dischargers –electrial and electronic components, textile mills and landfills

Effluent limitations guidelines, or ELGs, are one of the EPA’s tools to limit pollutants from entering the nation’s waters. They set national limits on the level of specific pollutants in wastewater discharged into surface waters and municipal sewage treatment facilities. The EPA is studying facilities for which it has preliminary data on PFAS discharges, including electrical and electronic components, textile mills and landfills. The EPA expects to complete these studies by fall 2022. The results will inform future regulation, to be completed by the end of 2022.
Fall 2022 Pending
Complete data reviews of industrial dischargers – leather tanning and finishing, plastics molding and forming and paint formulating
Complete data reviews of industrial dischargers – leather tanning and finishing, plastics molding and forming and paint formulating

Effluent limitations guidelines, or ELGs, are one of the EPA’s tools to limit pollutants from entering the nation’s waters. ELGs set national limits on the level of specified pollutants in wastewater discharged into surface waters and into municipal sewage treatment facilities. The EPA has conducted a PFAS multi-industry study to inform the extent and nature of PFAS discharges and will begin data reviews for industrial categories for which there is little known information about PFAS discharges, including leather tanning and finishing, plastics molding and forming, and paint formulating. The EPA expects to complete its review by winter 2023, which will show whether there is enough data to begin drafting regulations.
Winter 2023 Pending
Monitor and determine action on other industrial dischargers – pulp, paper, paperboard and airports
Monitor and determine action on other industrial dischargers – pulp, paper, paperboard and airports

The EPA will monitor industrial categories that are phasing out PFAS by 2024, including pulp, paper, paperboard and airports. It will address the results of this monitoring, and whether future regulatory action is needed, in the Final ELG Plan 15, in fall 2022.
Fall 2022 Pending
Address PFAS in existing Clean Water Act permits
Address PFAS in existing Clean Water Act permits

The Clean Water Act prohibits the discharge of pollutants from a “point source” into a “water of the United States,” unless dischargers have special permission, known as a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, or NPDES, permit. The EPA issues discharge permits that limit what entities can discharge, and the permits include monitoring and reporting requirements. The EPA plans to use these permits to reduce PFAS discharges and get more information through monitoring PFAS discharged by these sources.

To address PFAS discharges at the source, the EPA released a memorandum on April 28, 2022, that aligns EPA’s program for issuing Clean Water Act permits with the goals articulated in the PFAS Strategic Roadmap, including enhanced monitoring, new analytical methods, and pollution prevention and best management practices. Guidance for state and local permitting authorities is pending.
Winter 2022 Partly complete
Publish aquatic life ambient water quality criteria
Publish aquatic life ambient water quality criteria

The EPA will develop aquatic life ambient water quality criteria for PFAS. The quality criteria represent levels of PFAS in a body of water that are not expected to cause adverse effects to aquatic life. The EPA will publish recommended aquatic life criteria for PFOA and PFOS and benchmarks for other PFAS for which there isn’t enough information to define a recommended aquatic life criteria value. Water quality criteria will be used to develop water quality standards to protect and restore waters, issue permits to control PFAS discharges, and assess the impact of PFAS pollution on local communities. In May 2022, EPA released the draft aquatic life criteria for PFOA and PFOS.
Winter 2022 Partly complete
Publish human health ambient water quality criteria
Publish human health ambient water quality criteria

The EPA will develop human health ambient water quality criteria for PFAS, which represent specific levels of PFAS in a water body that are not expected to cause adverse effects to human health. EPA will first develop human health criteria for PFOA and PFOS, taking into account drinking water and fish consumption. Water quality criteria will be used to develop water quality standards to protect and restore waters, issue permits to control PFAS discharges, and assess the impact of PFAS pollution on local communities. The human health water quality criteria are expected to be published in fall 2024.
Fall 2024 Pending
Annual public report on progress
Annual public report on progress

Each year, the EPA will report to the public on the status of the actions outlined in this roadmap, as well as future actions the agency may take.
Winter 2022 Pending
Finalize list of PFAS for use in state and tribal fish advisories
Finalize list of PFAS for use in state and tribal fish advisories

To guide state and tribal fish monitoring and advisory programs about which PFAS to monitor and how to set PFAS advisories for fish, the EPA will publish in spring 2023 a list of PFAS, either known or thought to be widespread nationwide in samples of edible freshwater fish.
Spring 2023 Pending
Finalize risk assessment of PFOA/PFOS in biosolids
Finalize risk assessment of PFOA/PFOS in biosolids

Biosolids, also called sewage sludge, from wastewater treatment facilities sometimes contain PFAS, which can contaminate crops when biosolids are spread on agricultural fields. The Clean Water Act authorizes the EPA to set pollutant limits and monitoring and reporting requirements for contaminants in biosolids if enough scientific evidence show there is potential harm to human health or the environment. The EPA will complete a risk assessment for PFOA and PFOS in biosolids by winter 2024. This assessment will serve as the basis for determining whether regulation of PFOA and PFOS in biosolids is appropriate.
Winter 2024 Pending
Use enforcement to address PFAS releases at facilities
Use enforcement to address PFAS releases at facilities

The EPA is using its enforcement authority under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Toxic Substances Control Act, Clean Water Act, Safe Drinking Water Act and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, better known as Superfund, to identify past and ongoing releases of PFAS into the environment. For example, the EPA is conducting inspections, issuing information requests and collecting data to understand the level of contamination and current risks posed by PFAS to surrounding communities.
Unspecified N/A
Additional drinking water advisories when toxicity assessments are completed
Additional drinking water advisories when toxicity assessments are completed

The Safe Drinking Water Act, or SDWA, authorizes the EPA to issue health advisories for contaminants that are not regulated by the act. The advisories provide information on health effects, testing methods and treatment techniques for unregulated contaminants of concern. They offer a margin of protection by defining a level of drinking water concentration at or below a lifetime exposure level that is not anticipated to lead to adverse health effects. In addition to health advisories for GenX and PFBS, expected in spring 2022, and updated health advisories for PFOA and PFOS, the EPA will publish health advisories for additional PFAS as the agency completes toxicity assessments.
Unspecified N/A
Eliminating unnecessary PFAS uses
Action Expected Date Status
Publish a national testing strategy
Publish a national testing strategy

To address data gaps, the EPA developed a testing strategy, released in October 2021, to identify candidate chemicals and evaluate the toxicity and risks associated with this large class of chemicals. Using its Toxic Substances Control Act, Section 4 authority, the EPA will require companies to perform testing and will use this data to further inform the agency’s future research, monitoring and regulatory efforts.
Fall 2021 Completed
Issue Toxic Substances Control Act test rule orders (first round)
Issue Toxic Substances Control Act test rule orders (first round)

The Toxic Substances Control Act, or TSCA, allows the EPA to require chemical manufacturers, importers and processors to develop information on chemicals and submit it to EPA when there isn’t enough information on the chemical, when tests are necessary to get that information, when the chemical substance may present unreasonable risk, or it is produced in substantial quantities and may cause substantial or significant exposures to the environment or humans.

The EPA is using its National PFAS Testing Strategy to identify gaps in existing data and select one or more candidate chemicals for further study. The EPA planned to issue by the end of 2021 the first round of test orders for selected PFAS. The first test order was issued on June 6, 2022.
Fall 2021 Partly complete
Close loophole in TRI reporting (enhance PFAS reporting under the TRI)
Close loophole in TRI reporting (enhance PFAS reporting under the TRI)

The 2020 National Defense Authorization Act mandated that industrial dischargers report their annual releases of 180 PFAS to EPA’s Toxics Release Inventory, or TRI, which tracks annual industrial releases of chemicals. Chemicals subject to TRI reporting are codified in two places in the Code of Federal Regulations. TRI chemicals with a default reporting threshold of 10,000 pounds are listed at 40 C.F.R 372.65, and TRI chemicals that are of special concern and have much lower reporting thresholds, ranging from 0.1 grams to 100 pounds, are listed at 40 C.F.R 372.28.

Congress gave PFAS a low reporting threshold of only 100 pounds, but the EPA listed them with the chemicals that have higher default reporting thresholds, allowing PFAS dischargers to use the “de minimis exemption,” which is available only for releases of chemicals with the higher reporting thresholds. The de minimis exemption makes it possible to avoid TRI reporting by formulating mixtures so the concentration of any single PFAS far exceeds the 100-pound threshold, as long as each chemical makes up less than 1 percent of the total mixture, facilities can avoid reporting it.

The EPA expects to propose a rule in Spring 2022 to recategorize PFAS to remove the de minimis exemption for TRI reporting. It further expects to announce an additional rulemaking to add more PFAS to the TRI in 2022, as required by the 2020 NDAA.
Spring 2022 Pending
Establish voluntary program to reduce releases
Establish voluntary program to reduce releases

The EPA plans to establish by spring 2022 a voluntary stewardship program challenging facilities to reduce overall releases of PFAS into the environment. Because regulatory efforts do not extend to all PFAS currently in use, the program will turn to manufacturers to go beyond current requirements by reporting all PFAS releases. The goal is to establish a baseline and measure progress in reducing releases.
Spring 2022 Pending
Close the door on abandoned PFAS uses
Close the door on abandoned PFAS uses

Some PFAS are no longer in use, or no longer used in certain applications, but without a Toxic Substances Control Act restriction, manufacturers are free to begin using those abandoned PFAS chemicals or resume abandoned uses at any time without notice. To prevent this, the EPA can designate uses of a chemical that are not currently ongoing as “significant new uses.” This ensures an entity must first submit a notice and certain information to the EPA, which is required to determine the potential health and environmental risks and to require safety measures to address unreasonable risks before the company can resume use of that chemical or use. Action to designate abandoned uses as “significant new uses” is expected in summer 2022.
Summer 2022 Pending
New reporting on source and quantities
New reporting on source and quantities

The Toxic Substances Control Act, Section 8(a)(7), gives the EPA authority to collect information on PFAS. In June 2021, EPA published a proposed data-gathering rule that would collect information on uses, production volumes, disposal, exposures and hazards on any PFAS manufactured since 2011. The EPA will consider public comments on the proposal and finalize it by January 2023. The information through this rule will enable the EPA to better understand the sources and quantities of manufactured PFAS and assist it in future research, monitoring and regulatory efforts.
Winter 2022 Pending
Recommend PFAS-free products for federal purchase
Recommend PFAS-free products for federal purchase

An executive order released by President Biden in December 2021 directs federal agencies to prioritize the purchase of EPA-recommended PFAS-free products. As an initial action to carry out this directive, the EPA released its new Framework for the Assessment of Environmental Performance Standards and Ecolabels for Federal Purchasing under its Environmentally Preferable Purchasing program and a webpage highlighting ecolabel criteria that address PFAS. The program helps federal agencies purchasers to identify and procure environmentally preferable products and services.
Unspecified N/A
Robust review PFAS before they enter the marketplace
Robust review PFAS before they enter the marketplace

The EPA’s Toxic Substances Control Act’s New Chemicals program plays an important gatekeeper role in ensuring the safety of new chemicals, including new PFAS, before they enter the marketplace. TSCA amendments from 2016 require the EPA to review and determine potential safety risks for new chemical submission through the program. The EPA will study new PFAS to ensure they are safe before they enter the marketplace. The EPA has also stopped allowing PFAS to be approved through a loophole for chemicals produced in low volumes.
Unspecified N/A
Review existing PFAS uses
Review existing PFAS uses

The EPA is looking at PFAS it has reviewed through the Toxic Substances Control Act’s New Chemicals program, including those it studied before the 2016 TSCA amendments to address restrictions that are insufficiently protective. As part of this effort, the Agency could impose additional notice requirements to ensure it can review PFAS before they are used in new ways that might present concerns. In addition, EPA plans to issue (on an “ongoing” basis) TSCA Section 5(e) orders putting conditions on the use existing PFAS for which significant new use notices (e.g., a new manufacturing process for an existing PFAS, or a new use or user) have recently been filed with EPA. The orders would impose rigorous safety requirements as a condition of allowing the significant new use to commence.
Unspecified N/A
Cleaning up historic PFAS pollution
Action Expected Date Status
Proposal to designate PFOA/PFOS as "hazardous substances"
Proposal to designate PFOA/PFOS as "hazardous substances"

Designating PFOA and PFOS as “hazardous” would require facilities to report on PFOA and PFOS releases that meet or exceed the reportable quantity assigned to these substances and would enable the EPA and other agencies to recover the costs of cleaning up PFOA and PFOS. The proposal of the rule is expected in spring 2022.
Spring 2022 Pending
Solicit input on designating other PFAS "hazardous substances"
Solicit input on designating other PFAS "hazardous substances"

The EPA plans to request public input by Spring 2022 about the potential hazardous substance designation for precursors to PFAS, new PFAS, and groups or subgroups of PFAS. Designating additional chemicals as “hazardous” would require facilities across the country to report releases that meet or exceed the reportable quantity assigned to these substances. It would enable the EPA and other agencies to recover the costs of cleaning up these chemicals.
Spring 2022 Pending
Update guidance on destroying and disposing of PFAS
Update guidance on destroying and disposing of PFAS

The 2020 National Defense Authorization Act requires the EPA to publish interim guidance on destroying and disposing of PFAS and specific non-consumer PFAS-containing materials, and to update it at least every three years, as appropriate.

In December 2020, EPA published the first interim guidance for public comment, which identifies three commercially available technologies for either destroying or disposing of PFAS, information gaps about their ability to destroy or dispose of PFAS, and research underway to address the lack of information. The EPA’s updated guidance, expected by fall 2023, will address the public comments and reflect newly published research results.
Fall 2023 Pending
Final rule to designate PFAS as "hazardous substances"
Final rule to designate PFAS as "hazardous substances"

Designating PFOA and PFOS as “hazardous” would require facilities to report on PFOA and PFOS releases that meet or exceed the reportable quantity assigned to these substances and would enable the EPA and other agencies to recover the costs of cleaning up PFOA and PFOS. The final rule is expected in summer 2023.
Summer 2023 Pending
Regional screening levels to assess site contamination
Regional screening levels to assess site contamination

Regional screening levels, or RSLs, are a "screening" tool the EPA launched to help identify areas, contaminants and conditions at a particular site that require more federal attention. They are risk-based concentrations derived from standardized equations that combine assumptions about exposure and EPA toxicity data. The EPA announced new RSLs and removal management levels for five PFAS chemicals on May 18, 2022. The RSL tool website can be accessed here.
Unspecified Completed
Propose designating PFAS as Resource Conservation and Recovery Act "hazardous constituents"
Propose designating PFAS as Resource Conservation and Recovery Act "hazardous constituents"

Listing chemicals as so-called hazardous constituents may subject them to treatment standards and allows the use of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Corrective Action Program to clean up releases of PFAS. The addition of PFAS chemicals to the list of hazardous constituents would help advance any longer-term process to make a hazardous waste listing in the future. In a response to a petition from the state of New Mexico on October 26, 2021, the EPA committed to begin the process of adding PFOA, PFOS, PFBS and GenX as RCRA hazardous constituents under 40 CFR Part 261 Appendix VIII.
Summer 2023 Pending
Proposal to clarify Resource Conservation and Recovery Act corrective action applicability
Proposal to clarify Resource Conservation and Recovery Act corrective action applicability

The EPA plans to begin to clarify that the RCRA Corrective Action Program has authority to require investigation and cleanup for wastes that meet the legal definition of hazardous waste. This regulation would address how much RCRA corrective action applies to non-regulatory hazardous waste, which can include emerging contaminants such as PFAS. The EPA committed to this action in response to a petition from the state of New Mexico on October 26, 2021.
Winter 2022 Pending
PFAS science and solutions
Action Expected Date Status
Publish toxicity assessment for GenX
Publish toxicity assessment for GenX

A toxicity assessment is a written summary of the potential health effects associated with a chemical and identifies the dose levels at which those health effects may occur in order to calculate toxicity values. The EPA’s toxicity assessment of hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid its Ammonium Salt, two PFAS chemicals known “GenX,” provides detailed information about the toxicity of the chemicals and is a key step in setting a national drinking water health advisory for the chemicals. The assessment, released October 2021, concluded that exposure to GenX can harm the hepatic, hematological, renal, reproductive and immune systems, and has been linked to liver and pancreatic cancer.
Fall 2021 Completed
Draft total adsorbable fluorine method
Draft Total Adsorbable Fluorine Method

EPA recognizes the need for “total PFAS” methods and has increased efforts to measure the amount of PFAS in environment. Accordingly, EPA’s Office of Water published a draft single-validated method to screen for organofluorines (molecules with a carbon-fluorine bond) in wastewater. The most common sources of organofluorines are PFAS and non-PFAS fluorinated compounds, such as pesticides and pharmaceuticals. In April 2022, EPA released Draft Method 1621, which broadly screens for thousands of known PFAS compounds at the part per billion level in water samples and can detect whether organofluorines are present, but does not identify the specific chemicals that are present.
Fall 2021 Completed
Methods for measuring PFAS in air emissions
Methods for measuring PFAS in air emissions

The EPA has developed several methods to measure PFAS in air emissions. Method (OTM)-45 measures PFAS air emissions from stationary sources. The method can be used to test for 50 PFAS compounds and to help identify other PFAS that may be present in the air sample. The EPA developed SW-846 Test Method 0010 for semi/non-volatiles and Modified Method TO-15 for volatiles. The EPA also plans to publish a draft method for measuring additional PFAS in air emissions in fall 2022.
Fall 2022 Pending
Draft method for evaluating PFAS leaching from solid materials
Draft method for evaluating PFAS leaching from solid materials

Because studies have shown that solid materials can store leaching PFAS for decades, the EPA is working on drafting a standardized method to evaluate the leaching potential of PFAS from solid materials and plans to draft methods for solid materials by fall 2022.
Fall 2022 Pending
Draft toxicity assessment PFHxA, PFHxS, PFNA, and PFDA
Draft toxicity assessment PFHxA, PFHxS, PFNA, and PFDA

A toxicity assessment is a written summary of the potential health effects associated with a chemical and identifies the dose levels at which those health effects may occur in order to calculate toxicity values. In addition to the toxicity assessment for GenX, the Office of Research and Development is also currently developing toxicity assessments for several other PFAS – PFHxA, PFHxS, PFNA and PFDA -- expected to be released sometime in mid-2022. A draft toxicity assessment for PFHxA was released in February 2022.
Spring 2022 Partly complete
Final toxicity assessment PFBA
Final toxicity assessment PFBA

A toxicity assessment is a written summary of the potential health effects associated with a chemical and identifies the dose levels at which those health effects may occur in order to calculate toxicity values. In addition to the toxicity assessment for GenX, as well as several other PFAS, the Office of Research and Development is also developing a final toxicity assessment for PFBA, planned for fall 2022. The draft assessment was released in August 2021.
Fall 2022 Pending
Methods to detect, measure and explore “Total PFAS”
Methods to detect, measure and explore “Total PFAS”

See three “near term deliverables” listed in this section – draft adsorbable fluorine method; methods for measuring PFAS in air emissions; and draft method for evaluating PFAS leaching from solid materials. The EPA will also increase its efforts to develop and, if appropriate, validate “total PFAS” methods.
Unspecified Partly complete
Evaluate and develop technologies to reduce PFAS in environment
Evaluate and develop technologies to reduce PFAS in environment

The EPA needs new data on the effectiveness of different technologies for removing PFAS from the environment. This data is needed to inform decisions on drinking water and wastewater treatment, contaminated site cleanup and remediation, air emission controls, and end-of-life materials management. The EPA will continue to evaluate and develop technologies and make efforts to develop approaches for characterizing PFAS in source waters, at contaminated sites, and near PFAS production and treatment and disposal facilities.
Unspecified N/A
Identify initial PFAS categories of removal technologies
Identify initial PFAS categories of removal technologies

To evaluate and develop technologies for removing PFAS from the environment, the EPA will identify initial PFAS categories of removal technologies by summer 2022.
Summer 2022 Pending
Develop effective treatment technologies for drinking water
Develop effective treatment technologies for drinking water

To evaluate and develop technologies for PFAS removal from the environment, the EPA plans to develop effective PFAS treatment technologies for drinking water systems by fall 2022.
Fall 2022 Pending
Educate the public about the risks of PFAS
Educate the public about the risks of PFAS

The EPA will make available key explainers that help the public understand what PFAS are, how they are used, and how PFAS can affect their health and their lives. These explainers and other educational materials will be published in multiple languages, and the agency will work to ensure the information reaches targeted communities, including those with limited access to technology and resources.
Unspecified N/A

Department of Defense

50%
Actions due this time period and completed on time
 
80%
All actions due and completed prior to this time period
 
Protecting water, air and food from PFAS
Action Expected Date Status
Inform farmers of potential PFAS contamination
Inform farmers of potential PFAS contamination

The 2021 National Defense Authorization Act requires the DOD to send letters to farmers and agricultural operators within a mile downstream of potentially tainted bases. The requirement applies to contaminated bases where PFAS have been detected in groundwater, have been linked to a local agricultural or drinking water source, including a water well, and is suspected or known to be the result of the use of PFAS at the installation. The Pentagon provided notification of the presence of PFAS to 2,143 agricultural operators in March 2021. DOD is continuing to notify agricultural operators.
Spring 2021 (and ongoing) Completed
• Report to Congress: Inform farmers of potential PFAS contamination
Report to Congress: Inform farmers of potential PFAS contamination

The 2021 NDAA requires the DOD to report to Congress the location of farmers and agricultural operators within a mile downstream of potentially tainted bases, where PFAS has been detected in groundwater, has been linked to a local agricultural or drinking water source, including a water well, and is suspected or known to be the result of the use of PFAS at a DOD installation. The report was released in July 2021. The DOD is continuing to notify agricultural operators.
Summer 2021 Completed
Moratorium on PFAS incineration
Moratorium on PFAS incineration

The 2022 NDAA placed a temporary ban on the incineration of PFAS-containing aqueous film-forming foam, material contaminated by its release, and other PFAS-contaminated material. On April 26, 2022, the department released a memorandum, putting a pause on use of the foam.
Spring 2022 Completed
• Report to Congress: The moratorium on PFAS incineration
Report to Congress: The moratorium on PFAS incineration

The 2022 NDAA placed a temporary ban on the incineration of PFAS-containing aqueous film-forming foam, or AFFF, material contaminated by AFFF release and other PFAS-contaminated material.

The NDAA requires the DOD to submit to Congress a report every year on the quantity of materials incinerated, the temperature range specified in the permit where the covered materials were incinerated, the locations and facilities where the covered materials were incinerated, details about actions taken to implement proper disposal of materials containing PFAS or AFFF foam (per Sec. 220 of NDAA FY 2020), and recommendations for the safe storage of PFAS and PFAS-containing materials prior to destruction and disposal.
Winter 2022 Pending
Disclose water test results
Disclose water test results
The 2022 NDAA requires the military to publicly disclose results from tests for PFAS in water for an area covered by the law within 20 days of getting them. The DOD released the first set of results in May 2022. As of spring 2022, the department is providing alternative water or filtration for private or public systems outside of 53 military installations.
Ongoing Completed
Eliminating unnecessary PFAS uses
Action Expected Date Status
Prohibit use of PFAS in food packaging for military meals
Prohibit use of PFAS in food packaging for military meals

The 2020 NDAA prohibits the use of PFAS in food packaging for military meals after October 1, 2021
Fall 2021 Completed
Issue guidance on AFFF prevention and mitigation
Issue guidance on AFFF prevention and mitigation

The 2022 NDAA requires the Pentagon to issue guidance on the prevention and mitigation of aqueous film-forming foam, or AFFF, spills based on the results of the department’s review of best practices and recommended requirements to ensure the following: the supervision by personnel trained in responding to spills of AFFF of each material transfer or maintenance activity of the department that may result in such a spill, the use of containment berms and the covering of storm drains and catch basins by personnel performing maintenance activities for the department in the vicinity of such drains or basins, and the storage of materials for the cleanup and containment of AFFF in close proximity to fire suppression systems in buildings of the department.
Fall 2022 Pending
• Issue guidance for state and local firefighting agreements
Issue guidance for state and local firefighting agreements

The 2022 NDAA requires that after the DOD publishes a review of its efforts to prevent or mitigate spills of AFFF, it must publish guidance on the prevention and mitigation of spills based on the results of the review, which includes best practices and recommended requirements. This ensures supervision by people trained in responding to spills, the use of containment berms and covering of storm drains and catch basins by people doing maintenance for the department near the drains or basins and storage of aqueous film-forming foam cleanup and containment materials close to fire suppression systems.
Fall 2022 Pending
New specifications for AFFF alternative for firefighting foam
New specifications for AFFF alternative for firefighting foam

The 2020 NDAA mandates that by January 31, 2023, the DOD will publish a military specification for a fluorine-free firefighting foam for use at all military installations.” The DOD has completed large-scale test of the firefighting capability of several PFAS-free formulations and continues to work on drafting the specification and implementation plans for facilities and vehicles.
Winter 2022 Pending
End purchases of PFAS firefighting foam
End purchases of PFAS firefighting foam

The 2020 NDAA specifies that money can’t be appropriated or otherwise made available for the DOD to buy firefighting foam that contains more than one part per billion of PFAS chemicals after October 1, 2023.
Fall 2023 Pending
Replace the use of PFAS fire-fighting foam
Replace the use of PFAS fire-fighting foam

The 2020 NDAA prohibits the DOD from using fluorinated aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) as a firefighting agent, after October 1, 2024, or sooner, if the secretary decides compliance with the prohibition is possible.
Fall 2024 Pending
Restrict procurement of PFOA/PFOS items
Restrict procurement of PFOA/PFOS items

The 2020 NDAA prohibits the DOD, beginning April 1, 2023, from purchasing PFOA- or PFOS-containing items, like nonstick cookware or cooking utensils used in dining facilities, and upholstered furniture, carpets and rugs treated with stain-resistant coatings.
Spring 2023 Pending
Cleaning up historic PFAS pollution
Action Expected Date Status
Report on the status of remediation at 50 sites
Report on the status of remediation at 50 sites

The 2022 NDAA requires the DoD to report on the status of efforts to remediate PFAS at the following 50 locations: England Air Force Base, La.; Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake, Calif.; Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; Myrtle Beach Air Force Base, S.C.; Langley Air Force Base, Va.; Naval Air Station Jacksonville, Fla.; Niagara Falls Air Reserve Station, N.Y.; Grand Prairie Armed Forces Reserve Complex, Tex.; Altus Air Force Base, Okla.; Charleston Air Force Base, S.C.; Barksdale Air Force Base, La.; Plattsburgh Air Force Base, N.Y.; Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla.; Sheppard Air Force Base, Tex.; Columbus Air Force Base, Miss.; Chanute Air Force Base, Ill.; Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Calif.; Travis Air Force Base, Calif.; Ellsworth Air Force Base, South Dakota; Minot Air Force Base, North Dakota; Westover Air Reserve Base, Massachusetts; Eaker Air Force Base, Ark.; Naval Air Station Alameda, Calif.; Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska; Horsham Air Guard Station, Pa.; Vance Air Force Base, Okla.; Dover Air Force Base, Del.; Edwards Air Force Base, Calif.; Robins Air Force Base, Ga.; Joint Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst, N.J.; Galena Air Force Base, Alaska; Naval Research Laboratory Chesapeake Bay Detachment, Md.; Buckley Air Force Base, Colo.; Arnold Air Force Base, Tenn.; Tinker Air Force Base, Okla.; Fairchild Air Force Base, Wash.; Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif.; Hancock Field Air National Guard Base, N.Y.; F.E. Warren Air Force Base, Wyo.; Nevada Air National Guard Base, Nev.; K.I. Sawyer Air Force Base, Mich.; Pease Air Force Base, N.H.; Whiteman Air Force Base, Mo.; Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Mich.; Shepherd Field Air National Guard Base, W.V.; Naval Air Station Whidbey Island-Ault Field, Wash.; Rosecrans Air National Guard Base, Mo.; Joint Base Andrews, Md.; Iowa Air National Guard Base, Iowa; and Stewart Air National Guard Base, N.Y.

As of spring 2022, DoD has started remedial investigations at 168 locations and continues to monitor all on-base water systems for PFAS to ensure water remains below the EPA’s 2016 health advisory levels.
Winter 2021 Overdue
Publish water testing plans
Publish water testing plans

The 2022 NDAA requires the DOD to publicly disclose the anticipated schedule and location of any proposed PFAS testing in a covered area.
Spring 2022 Pending
Report PFAS “Spend plan” to Congress
Report PFAS “Spend plan” to Congress

The DOD’s FY 2022 appropriation explanatory language required the military services to submit to Congress a PFAS spend plan within 60 days of enactment. This action was completed.
Spring 2022 Completed
Schedule for remediation of PFAS at DoD sites
Schedule for remediation of PFAS at DoD sites

The 2022 NDAA requires the DOD to submit a report by fall 2022 proposing a schedule for completing PFAS cleanup, and its associated cost estimates, at military installations, National Guard facilities, and formerly used defense sites in the U.S. that were identified, as of March 31, 2021, as having released PFAS chemicals. As of spring 2022, the DOD has started remedial investigations at 168 locations and continues to monitor all on-base water systems for PFAS to ensure water remains below the EPA’s 2016 health advisory levels. As of spring 2022, the DOD has continued research and demonstration on over 100 projects related to PFAS treatment technologies, sampling, analysis and monitoring.
Fall 2022 Pending
Report on the status of testing to Congress every year
Report on the status of testing to Congress every year

The 2022 NDAA requires the DOD, for years 2022 through 2024, to submit a report on the status of the site inspection testing for PFAS at all military installations and facilities of the National Guard in the U.S. that are identified as of March 31, 2021, as having a release of PFAS chemicals.
Winter 2022-2025 Pending
Complete preliminary assessment and site inspection for all facilities
Complete preliminary assessment and site inspection for all facilities

The NDAA for FY 2022 requires DOD to complete by winter 2023 preliminary assessment and site inspection testing for PFAS at all military installations and facilities of the National Guard located in the U.S. that are identified as of March 31, 2021, as having a release of PFAS. As of spring 2022, the DOD has completed PA/SIs at over 300 military installations. As of spring 2022, it has also continued research and demonstration on over 100 projects related to treatment technologies, sampling, analysis and monitoring.
Winter 2023 Pending
Clearinghouse on PFAS testing and cleanup
Clearinghouse on PFAS testing and cleanup

The 2020 NDAA required the DOD to maintain a publicly available website that provides a information about the exposure of armed forces members and their families and communities to PFAS substances resulting from contamination at military installations.
Unspecified N/A
Amend agreements between the DOD and states to meet state standards
Amend agreements between the DOD and states to meet state standards

The 2020 NDAA required the DOD to work “expeditiously,” when requested by a state, to finalize an agreement to work together to address PFAS in a way that incorporates state water standards for PFAS.
(various) N/A
• Report to Congress within one year if agreement is not reached
Report to Congress within one year if agreement is not reached

The 2020 NDAA required the DOD to work “expeditiously,” when requested by a state, to finalize an agreement to address PFAS in a way that incorporates state water standards for PFAS. The DOD is required to report to Congress within a year if an agreement with the state is not reached (Pub. Law 116-92, Sec. 332).
Spring 2022 Pending
PFAS science and solutions
Action Expected Date Status
Survey technologies to phase out AFFF and report to Congress
Survey technologies to phase out AFFF and report to Congress

The 2021 NDAA requires the DOD to survey relevant technologies to identify available technologies that can be adapted for use by the department to facilitate the phaseout of aqueous film-forming foam by 2024. The DOD has completed large-scale testing of the firefighting capability of several PFAS-free formulations and continues to work on drafting a specification and implementation plans for facilities and vehicles. In February 2022, the DOD briefed Congress on its report on technologies and efforts to phase out AFFF.
Winter 2021 Completed

Department of Agriculture

N/A*
Actions due this time period and completed on time
*No published action deadlines
N/A*
All actions due and completed prior to this time period
*No published action deadlines
Protecting water, air and food from PFAS
Action Expected Date Status
Research on PFAS in food and take action to address contamination
Research on PFAS in food and take action to address contamination

The USDA’s Food Safety and Inspection Service is testing for PFAS in meat and poultry products to identify the causes and implications of PFAS in the food system.
Unspecified N/A
Grants for PFAS research on food and on animal and human health
Grants for PFAS research on food and on animal and human health

The USDA is supporting extramural research on PFAS in the environment and food, as well as on animal and human health. For example, five Michigan State University researchers have received a USDA grant for $750,000 to study crop uptake of PFAS and how to prevent it.
Unspecified N/A
Dairy indemnification for cows harmed by PFAS
Dairy indemnification for cows harmed by PFAS

When cows or dairy products can no longer be marketed because of PFAS contamination, and a public regulatory agency directs the dairy farmer to remove their raw milk from the market, the Dairy Indemnity Payment Program can provide compensation.
Unspecified N/A

Food and Drug Administration

0%
Actions due this time period and completed on time
 
100%
All actions due and completed prior to this time period
 
Protecting water, air and food from PFAS
Action Expected Date Status
Report on phaseout of food contact uses
Report on phaseout of food contact uses

In July 2020, manufacturers of food contact substances committed to a voluntary three year market phaseout of certain types of short-chain PFAS containing 6:2 FTOH that may be found in food packaging. The manufacturers committed to providing the FDA with annual updates, and in January 2022, the FDA received updates from three companies, which are posted on its “Authorized Uses of PFAS in Food Contact Applications” website.
Winter 2021 Completed
Publish results of food and seafood tests
Publish results of food and seafood tests

To understand and reduce exposure to PFAS from foods, the FDA is conducting surveys of nationally distributed processed foods. The FDA released results from the studies: Dataset 1, Dataset 2, Dataset 3, Dataset 4, and Dataset 5. The FDA plans to announce the results of a targeted seafood survey in spring 2022.
Spring 2022 Pending
Review science on PFAS and food packaging
Review science on PFAS and food packaging

As the FDA evaluates PFAS levels in the food supply, the agency aims to use the advanced analytical capabilities of its laboratories for generating and sharing new scientific information, like testing methodologies, to increase the baseline knowledge of PFAS occurrence in foods.
Unspecified N/A

General Services Administration

N/A*
Actions due this time period and completed on time
*No published action deadlines
N/A*
All actions due and completed prior to this time period
*No published action deadlines
Eliminating unnecessary PFAS uses
Action Expected Date Status
Issue policies/regulations to restrict PFAS purchasing
Issue policies/regulations to restrict PFAS purchasing

The GSA, which sets ground rules for federal purchasing, will work to implement the requirements of President Joe Biden’s executive order directing the government to focus its purchasing power on PFAS-free products. The GSA “will seek to eliminate non-essential uses of PFAS in building materials, while encouraging the development of alternatives.”
Unspecified N/A

Department of Commerce

N/A*
Actions due this time period and completed on time
*No actions due this period
N/A*
All actions due and completed prior to this time period
*No past actions overdue
PFAS science and solutions
Action Expected Date Status
NIST study on PFAS prevalence/risk in firefighting gear
NIST study on PFAS prevalence/risk in firefighting gear

The 2021 NDAA authorizes the NIST to conduct research to understand the type, prevalence, and concentration of PFAS in firefighting gear, the source of PFAS, and the mechanism for PFAS release, which is critical to reducing the risk of being exposed to PFAS from the gear.
Winter 2023 Pending
NIST grants on researching alternative firefighting gear
NIST grants on researching alternative firefighting gear

The 2021 NDAA authorizes a National Institutes of Standards and Technology, or NIST, grant program to fund research into PFAS-free alternatives for firefighting gear.
Summer 2024 Pending

Federal Aviation Administration

N/A*
Actions due this time period and completed on time
*No actions due this period
0%
All actions due and completed prior to this time period
 
PFAS science and solutions
Action Expected Date Status
Research to reduce discharges and find AFFF alternatives
Research to reduce discharges and find AFFF alternatives

The FAA is researching the use of aqueous film-forming foam, or AFFF, containing PFAS in emergencies. It is working with DOD to find a PFAS-free firefighting foam alternative.
Unspecified N/A
Allow airports to switch to fluorine-free firefighting foam
Allow airports to switch to fluorine-free firefighting foam

In the 2018 FAA Reauthorization Act, Congress gave the FAA until October 5, 2021, to “no longer require" the use of PFAS in firefighting foams used at airports. On October 4, 2021, the FAA issued an alert saying it would no longer require the use of PFAS to meet its existing performance standards for firefighting foams. Those standards cannot be met without the use of PFAS, so airports must still carry firefighting foams with PFAS until the FAA updates them.
Fall 2021 Overdue

Federal Emergency Management Agency

N/A*
Actions due this time period and completed on time
*No published action deadlines
N/A*
All actions due and completed prior to this time period
*No published action deadlines
PFAS science and solutions
Action Expected Date Status
Research mitigating exposure from fire training/equipment
Research mitigating exposure from fire training/equipment

Through the National Fire Academy, FEMA is working to better understand, and mitigate, PFAS exposure from fire training exercises and equipment use. The FEMA also awarded a $1.5 million grant to the University of Arizona to study the extent of firefighter exposure to PFAS and subsequent health impacts.
Unspecified N/A

Federal research agencies (Department of Health and Human Services)

N/A*
Actions due this time period and completed on time
*No published action deadlines
N/A*
All actions due and completed prior to this time period
*No published action deadlines
PFAS science and solutions
Action Expected Date Status
Guidance for clinicians on testing, inform care and advice
Guidance for clinicians on testing, inform care and advice

In partnership with the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, the HHS is developing guidance for clinicians on PFAS testing, how test results should inform clinical care, and how to advise patients on exposure reduction.
Unspecified N/A
NIOSH study of PFAS risks for career firefighters/gear
NIOSH study of PFAS risks for career firefighters/gear

The CDC’s National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is conducting a study that will address PFAS exposure and health assessments in manufacturing workers, service sector workers, and firefighters, and includes measurement of PFAS levels in gear.
Unspecified N/A
NIEHS review of literature on immune system response to vaccination
NIEHS review of literature on immune system response to vaccination

Per a request by the Environmental Protection Agency, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, or NIEHS, is evaluating the published literature on specific PFAS, to determine whether exposure could have immune effects that would weaken responses to vaccination.
Unspecified N/A
NIEHS and EPA developing class-based understanding of PFAS health effects
NIEHS and EPA developing class-based understanding of PFAS health effects

The NIEHS and the EPA are developing a chemical class-based understanding of the health effects of PFAS. The goal is to achieve a more-efficient understanding of potential health effects across the class of chemicals.
Unspecified N/A
NIEHS funding tools to remediate and understand PFAS fate/transport
NIEHS funding tools to remediate and understand PFAS fate/transport

Through its Superfund Research Program, the NIEHS is funding research and development of tools to remediate PFAS, and to better understand the fate and transport of PFAS chemicals once they are released into the environment.
Unspecified N/A
ATSDR expanding measurements to identify non-drinking water PFAS exposure
ATSDR expanding measurements to identify non-drinking water PFAS exposure

The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry is partnering with the EPA to expand on the environmental measurements gathered as part of exposure assessments to identify significant non-drinking water sources of PFAS exposure.
Unspecified N/A
ATSDR reports on 10 exposure assessments of more than 2,300 people
ATSDR reports on 10 exposure assessments of more than 2,300 people

The ATSDR is currently developing reports for 10 PFAS exposure assessments, which looked at exposures in more than 2,300 individuals from over 1,400 households.
Unspecified N/A

Department of Homeland Security

N/A*
Actions due this time period and completed on time
*No published action deadlines
N/A*
All actions due and completed prior to this time period
*No published action deadlines
PFAS science and solutions
Action Expected Date Status
Initiatives to investigate/remediate, protect emergency responders
Initiatives to investigate/remediate, protect emergency responders

The DHS inventoried its PFAS use, such as firefighting foams, and prior releases, including possible water source contamination. To address PFAS at DHS facilities, a recent Policy Directive establishes procedures for alerting the Office of the Chief Readiness Support Officer, conducting follow-up investigations, and taking appropriate response actions. A new DHS-wide Emerging Contaminants Working Group will coordinate additional steps to remediate PFAS.
Unspecified N/A

Executive Office of the President

0%
Actions due this time period and completed on time
 
N/A*
All actions due and completed prior to this time period
*No past actions overdue
PFAS science and solutions
Action Expected Date Status
OSTP: Publish interagency strategic research plan
OSTP: Publish interagency strategic research plan

The White House Office of Science and Technology Policy is mobilizing the National Science and Technology Council to form a team focused on coordinating and further accelerating federal scientific work on PFAS.
Winter 2022 Pending
CEQ strategies for research/remediation for communities
CEQ strategies for research/remediation for communities

The White House Council on Environmental Quality leads the newly-formed Interagency Policy Committee on PFAS, which will work to coordinate and help develop new policy strategies to support research, remediation, and removal of PFAS in communities across the country.
Unspecified N/A
CEQ implementing instructions for Executive Order 14057 to limit PFAS
CEQ implementing instructions for Executive Order 14057 to limit PFAS

In December 2021, President Joe Biden issued Executive Order 14057, “Catalyzing Clean Energy Industries and Jobs Through Federal Sustainability,” to reestablish the federal government as a leader in sustainability. The order says the CEQ shall coordinate with the director of the White House Office of Management and Budget to issue implementing instructions for the duties contained in section 504 of the order, which outlines the CEQ’s duties.
Spring 2022 Pending
We’re in this together

Donate today and join the fight to protect our environmental health.

Topics
Learn about these issues