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EWG’s Consumer Guide to Seafood

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September 18, 2014

EWG’s Consumer Guide to Seafood: References

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GAO. 2009. Seafood Fraud:  FDA Program Changes and Better Collaboration among Key Federal Agencies Could Improve Detection and Prevention. U.S. Government Accountability Office. GAO-09-258. Feb 19, 2009. http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-09-258

Gerstenberg SL, Martinson A, Kramer JL. 2009. An evaluation of mercury concentrations in three brands of canned tuna. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 29(2): 237-242. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/etc.32/full

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Groth E III. 2011. Over the limit - eating too much high-mercury fish. Mercury Policy Project. http://mercurypolicy.org/wp-content/uploads/2008/12/mppoverthelimit.pdf

Guallar E, Sanz-Gallardo MI, van't Veer P, et al. 2002. Mercury, fish oils, and the risk of myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 347(22):1747-54.

Hightower J, Moore D. 2003. Mercury levels in high-end consumers of fish. Environ Health Perspect 111: 604-608. 

Hightower JM, Brown DL. 2011. Mercury Concentrations in Fish Jerky Snack Food: Marlin, Ahi, and Salmon. Environmental Health. 10(90) http://www.ehjournal.net/content/10/1/90

Karimi R, Fitzgerald TP, Fisher NS. 2012. A Quantitative Synthesis of Mercury in Commercial Seafood and Implications for Exposure in the U.S. Environmental Health Perspectives. 120(11):1512-19. http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1205122/

Levin KE, Levine MA, Weber YH, et al. 2005. Determination of Mercury in an Assortment of Dietary Supplements Using an Inexpensive Combustion Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Technique. 4:211-16.

MedlinePlus. 2014. Fish Oil. U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/993.html, viewed February 2014.

Mercury Policy Project. 2012. Tuna Surprise: Hidden Risks in School Lunches. http://mercurypolicy.org/?p=1611

Monson BA, Staples DF, Bhavsar SP, et al. 2011. Spatiotemporal trends of mercury in walleye and largemouth bass from the Laurentian Great Lakes Region. Ecotoxicology. 20:1555-1567.

Monterey Bay Aquarium. 2014. Seafood Watch Program. http://www.seafoodwatch.org/cr/seafoodwatch.aspx

Oceana. 2013. Seafood Fraud Nationwide. http://oceana.org/en/news-media/publications/reports/oceana-study-reveal...

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Oken E, Radesky JS, et al. 2008. Maternal fish intake during pregnancy, blood mercury levels, and child cognition at age 3 years in a US cohort. Am. J. Epidemiol. 167, 1171-1181.

Pawlosky RJ, Hibbeln JR, Lin Y, et al. 2003. Effects of beef- and fish-based diets on the kinetics of n-3 fatty acid metabolism in human subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 77:565-72.

Rizos EC, Ntzani EE, Bika E, Kostapanos MS, Elisaf MS. 2012. Association between omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and risk of major cardiovascular disease events: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 12;308(10):1024-33.

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Prenatal exposure to mercury and fish consumption during pregnancy and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-related behavior in children.
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Shim SM, Dorworth LE, Lasrado JA, Santerre CR. 2004. Mercury and Fatty Acids in Canned Tuna, Salmon and Mackerel. Food Chemistry and Toxicology. 69(9):681-4.

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Stern AH, Korn LR. 2011. An approach for quantitatively balancing methylmercury risk and omega-3 benefit in fish consumption advisories. Environ Health Perspect. 119(8):1043-6

Strain JJ, et al. 2008. Associations of maternal long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, methyl mercury, and infant development in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study. Neurotoxicology 29:776-782.

USDA. 2010. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2010/DietaryGuidelines2010.pdf
 
USDA. 2013. USDA Agricultural Research Service, National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, release 26. U.S. Department of Agriculture Nutrient Data Laboratory  http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/docs.htm?docid=8964

WHO/FAO. 2010. Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on the Risks and Benefits of Fish Consumption. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Report No. 978, FIPM/R978(En), World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization.
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Zero Mercury Working Group. 2012. An Overview of Epidemiological Evidence on the Effects of Methyl mercury on Brain Development, and A Rationale for a Lower Definition of Tolerable Exposure. www.zeromercury.org, December 2012.