Sign up to receive email updates, action alerts, health tips, promotions to support our work and more from EWG. You can opt-out at any time. [Privacy]


Smoggy Schools
April 20, 2005

Smoggy Schools: References

Abt Associates, Inc. 2003. Health Benefits of Achieving the Ozone Air Quality Standards. Prepared for the Clean Air Task Force. Bethesda, MD.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. 2000. HCUPnet, Healthcare costs and utilization project. Rockville, MD.

Air Resources Board:

  1. California Environmental Protection Agency, Air Resources Board. 2005. Review of the California Ambient Air Quality Standard for Ozone. Volumes I-IV. Staff Report. March 11, 2005.
  2. California Air Resources Board. 2005. California Ambient Air Quality Data. CD. January, 2005.
  3. Air Quality Advisory Committee meeting January 11-12, 2005. Public meeting to review the proposed ozone standard, Meeting transcript
  4. Air Quality Advisory Committee meeting January 11-12, 2005. Public meeting to review the proposed ozone standard. Committee power point presentation and statement of Committee findings.

American Lung Association. 2004. State of the Air. Available at:

Anderson HOUR, 1997. Air pollution and daily admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 6 European cities: results from the APHEA project. Eur Respir J 10:1064-71.

Augé K. 2004. "Study: Smog, asthma not tied: National Jewish contradicts past research, expectations" Denver Post. November 9, 2004.,1413,36~53~2522694,00.html

Barr BC, Hyde DM, Plopper CG, Dungworth DL. 1990. A comparison of terminal airway remodeling in chronic daily versus episodic ozone exposure. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol (106):384-407.

Bell ML, McDermott A, Zeger SL, Samet JM, Dominici F. 2004. Ozone and short-term mortality in 95 US urban communities, 1987-2000. JAMA. 292(19):2372-8.

Burnett RT, Cakmak S, Brook JR, Krewski D. 1997. The role of particulate size and chemistry in the association between summertime ambient air pollution and hospitalization for cardiorespiratory diseases. Environmental Health Perspectives (105):614-20.

California Department of Education.

  1. California Department of Education. 2005. Private school location and enrollment 2003.
  2. Public school location, enrollment and demographics 2003.

California Senate. 1999. The Children's Environmental Health Protection Act. Senate Bill 25 (Escutia).

Cassmassi J (South Coast Air Quality Management District). 2004. Communicating Air Quality & Health Information Monitoring, AQI, Standards & Notification: The South Coast Perspective. Sacramento, April 29-30, 2004

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2002. Surveillance for asthmaÑUnited States, 1980—1999. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 51:1—13.

Chan E, Zhan, Homer CJ. 2002. Health care use and costs for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine (May)156:504-511. (AHRQ Publication No. 02-R074)

Community Action to Fight Asthma. 2005. Fact sheet, Asthma in California.

Delphino RJ. 1998. Differences in effects by symptom severity, anti-inflammatory medication use, and particulate averaging time. Environmental Health Perspectives, (106):751-61.

Friedman MS, Powell KE, Hutwagner L, Graham LM, Teague WG. 2001. Impact of changes in transportation and commuting behaviors during the 1996 Summer Olympic Games in Atlanta on air quality and childhood asthma. JAMA. 285(7):897-905.

Folinsbee LJ, Horstman DH, Kehrl HOUR, McDonnell WF, Gerrity TR, Seal E, Larson R, Hazucha MJ, Abdul-Salaam S, Faucette B, Ives PJ. 1991. Effects of single and repeated prolonged low-level ozone exposure in man. Presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Occupational and Environmental Health, March 1991, Washington, DC.

Gergen PJ. 2001. Understanding the economic burden of asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (107):S445-S448. AHRQ Publication No. 01-R076

Galizia A, Kinney PL. 1999. Long-Term Residence in Areas of High Ozone: Associations with Respiratory Health in a Nationwide Sample of Nonsmoking Young Adults. Environmental Health Perspectives (107)8

Gent JF, Triche EW, Holford TR, Belanger K, Bracken MB, Beckett WS, Leaderer BP. 2003. Association of low-level ozone and fine particles with respiratory symptoms in children with asthma. JAMA 290:1859-67.

Gilliland FD, Berhane K, Rappaport EB, Thomas DC, Avol E, Gauderman WJ, London SJ, Margolis HG, McConnell R, Islam KT, Peters JM. 2001. The Effects of Ambient Air Pollution on School Absenteeism Due to Respiratory Illnesses. Epidemiology. (12)1:43-54.

Green RS, Smorodinsky S, Kim JJ, McLaughlin R, Ostro B. Proximity of California Public Schools to Busy Roads. 2003. Environmental Health Perspectives (112)1

Hall JV, Brajer V, Lurmann FW. 2003. Economic valuation of ozone-related school absences in the South Coast Air Basin of California. Contemporary Economic Policy, (21)4:407-417.

Hernandez VR, Sutton P, Curtis KA, Carabez R. 2004. Struggling to Breathe: The Epidemic of Asthma Among Children and Adolescents in the San Joaquin Valley. Central California Children's Institute.

Hubbel BJ (USEPA). 2005. Health-related benefits of attaining the 8-hour ozone standard. Environmental Health Perspectives. (113)1:73-82.

Kinney PL, Aggarwal M, Nikiforov SV, Nadas A. 1998. Methods development for epidemiologic investigations of the health effects of prolonged ozone exposure. Part III. An approach to retrospective estimation of lifetime ozone exposure using a questionnaire and ambient monitoring data (U.S. sites). Res Rep Health Eff Inst :79-108; discussion 109-21.

Kleinman MT. 1991. Effects of ozone on pulmonary function: the relationship of response to dose. J Expos Anal Environ Epidemiol 1:309-325.

Kunzli N, Lurmann F, Segal M, Ngo L, Balmes J, Tager IB. 1997. Association between lifetime ambient ozone exposure and pulmonary function in college freshmen--results of a pilot study. Environ Res 72:8-23.

Latino Issues Forum. 2005. Press Release

Linder J, Herren D, Monn C, Wanner HU. 1988. Effect of ozone on physical performance. Schweiz Z Sportmed 36:5-10.

Los Angeles County Department of Health Services. 2004. Childhood Asthma.

McBride DE, Koenig JQ, Luchtel DL, Williams PV, Henderson WR Jr. 1994. Inflammatory effects of ozone in the upper airways of subjects with asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 149:1192-7.

McConnell R, Berhane K, Gilliland F, London SJ, Islam T, Gauderman WJ, Avol E, Margolis HG, Peters JM. 2002. Asthma in exercising children exposed to ozone: a cohort study. Lancet (359):386-91.

Mortimer KM, Tager IB, Dockery DW, Neas LM, Redline S. 2002. The Effect of Ozone on Inner-City Children with Asthma. Identification of Susceptible Subgroups. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 162:1838-1845.

Núñez D. 2005. How Poor Air Quality Affects Children's Health. California Asthma Public Health Initiative California Department of Health. Presentation

Pan X (California Air Resources Board). 2003. California State and Local Air Monitoring Network Plan. October 2003.

Peters JM, et al. 2004. Epidemiologic investigation to identify chronic effects of ambient air pollutants in Southern California. Prepared for the California Air Resources Board and the California Environmental Protection Agency.

Polakovic G. 2003. "Chemicals in Home a Big Smog Source" Los Angeles Times, 9 March, 2003.

Rabinovitch N, Zhang L, Murphy JR, Vedal S, Dutton SJ, Gelfand EW. 2004. Effects of wintertime ambient air pollutants on asthma exacerbations in urban minority children with moderate to severe disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 114(5):1131-7.

Ritz B, Yu F, Fruin S, Chapa G, Shaw GM, Harris JA. 2002. Ambient air pollution and risk of birth defects in Southern California. Am J Epidemiol. (155)1:17-25.

Scannell C, Chen L, Aris RM, Tager I, Christian D, Ferrando R, Welch B, Kelly T, Balmes JR. 1996. Greater ozone-induced inflammatory responses in subjects with asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 154: 24-9.

Schelegle ES, Walby WF, Alfaro MF, Wong VJ, Putney L, Stovall MY, Sterner-Kock A, Hyde DM, Plopper CG. 2003. Repeated episodes of ozone inhalation attenuates airway injury/repair and release of substance P, but not adaptation. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 186:127-42.

Sears M. Chest. 2005 Hall JV. 2003. Economic Valuation of Ozone-Related School Absences in the South Coast Air Basin. Final Report to ARB. The Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies, CSU Fullerton.

Segawa R (California Department of Pesticide Regulation). 2005. Volatile Organic Compound emissions from pesticides. Powerpoint presentation. March 2005. Av

Tager IB, Kunzli N, Lurmann F, Ngo L, Segal M, Balmes J. 1998. Methods development for epidemiologic investigations of the health effects of prolonged ozone exposure. Part II. An approach to retrospective estimation of lifetime ozone exposure using a questionnaire and ambient monitoring data (California sites). Res Rep Health Eff Inst:27-78; discussion 109-21.

United States Environmental Protection Agency. 1999. The Benefits and Costs of the Clean Air Act, 1990-2010. Prepared for U.S. Congress by U.S. EPA, Office of Air and Radiation/Office of Policy Analysis and Review, Washington, DC, November; EPA report no. EPA-410-R-99-001.

United States Environmental Protection Agency. Cost of Illness Handbook. 1991. Prepared for the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics by Abt Associates, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

University of California, Los Angeles. 2003. California Health Interview Survey, Public use files. Accessed March 2005.

Vance WA (California EPA, Children's Environmental Health Center). 2005. Air Quality & Health Information for Schools. Presentation at the National Air Quality Conference. San Francisco, CA. February 14, 2005

Wong EY, Gohlke J, Griffith WC, Farrow S, Faustman EM. 2004. Assessing the Health Benefits of Air Pollution Reduction for Children. Environmental Health Perspectives (112)2:227-232

Wong GWK, Lai CKW. 2003. Outdoor air pollution and asthma Curr Opin Pulm Med 10:62—66.