Level of Concern
A peer-reviewed article reports that birch bark extract impacted immune cell function in vitro.
Jona Freysdottir, Marino Boas Sigurpalsson, Sesselja Omarsdottir, Elin S. Olafsdottir, Arnor Vikingsson & Ingibjorg Hardardottir. 2011. Ethanol extract from birch bark (Betula pubescens) suppresses human dendritic cell mediated Th1 responses and directs it towards a Th17 regulatory response in vitro. Immunology letters 136(1), 90-6.
A peer-reviewed study reports this substance has antioxidant properties.
Wendan Zhang, Honghong Jiang, Jianxi Yang, Miaomiao Jin, Yingfeng Du, Qian Sun, Liang Cao & Huijun Xu. 2019. Safety assessment and antioxidant evaluation of betulin by LC-MS combined with free radical assays. Analytical biochemistry 587, 113460.
A human case study reports contact dermatitis caused by this substance.
Ulf Meyer-Hoffert & Jochen Brasch. 2013. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by betulin-containing triterpene extract from the outer bark of birch (Betula alba). Contact dermatitis 68(6), 382-3.
A peer-reviewed article concludes this substance has low propensity to impact liver enzyme function based on in vitro tests.
Madhav Seervi, Shweta Lotankar, Shrikant Barbar & Sadhana Sathaye. 2016. Assessment of cytochrome P450 inhibition and induction potential of lupeol and betulin in rat liver microsomes. Drug metabolism and personalized therapy 31(2), 115-22.
This substance was not mutagenic or genotoxic in an in vitro test.
T. S. Frolova, T. P. Kukina & O. I. Sinitsyna. 1900. [Genotoxic and Mutagenic Properties of Synthetic Betulinic and Betulonic Acids]. Bioorganicheskaia khimiia 41(4), 462-7.
A review article reports that betulin has anticancer properties.
Sylwia Katarzyna Król, Michał Kiełbus, Adolfo Rivero-Müller & Andrzej Stepulak. 2015. Comprehensive review on betulin as a potent anticancer agent. BioMed research international 2015, 584189.