developmentb
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D-LIMONENE

 
Asthma/Respiratory
 
Some Concern
 
Skin Allergies &
Irritation
 
Some Concern
 
Developmental &
Reproductive Toxicity
 
No Data, Some Concern
 
Cancer
 
Low Concern
 
Environment
 
No Data, Some Concern
 
Top scoring factors: Evidence of acute aquatic toxicity; skin irritation/allergies/damage; respiratory effects
d-Limonene can be found in 40 products.
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Evidence

Health issue
 
Level of Concern
 
Source
EPA testing shows this substance has high acute toxicity to aquatic life
 
some
 
EPA Fathead Minnow Acute Toxicity Database - Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Recognized by the European Union as a skin allergen
 
some
 
Allergen list - EU Cosmetics Directive
This peer-reviewed study reports this substance causes occupational asthma.
 
some
 
Fabrizio Guarneri, Olga Barbuzza, Mario Vaccaro & Giuseppe Galtieri. 2008. Allergic contact dermatitis and asthma caused by limonene in a labourer handling citrus fruits. Contact dermatitis 58(5), 315-6.
May cause an allergic skin reaction
Only in: Household Cleaners
 
some
 
GHS Data from ECHA Website - European Chemicals Agency (ECHA)
Causes skin irritation
Only in: Household Cleaners
 
some
 
GHS Data from ECHA Website - European Chemicals Agency (ECHA)
Not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans
 
low
 
IARC 103 - IARC
This substance is Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) as a food additive by the US Food and Drug Administration
Only in: Household Cleaners
 
low
 
FDA - Priority based Assessment of Food Additive (PAFA) - U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
A review article reports that terpenes may have anticancer properties.
 
low
 
Girija Kuttan, Poyil Pratheeshkumar, Kanjoormana Aryan Manu & Ramadasan Kuttan. 2011. Inhibition of tumor progression by naturally occurring terpenoids. Pharmaceutical biology 49(10), 995-1007.
 
 
About the ratings About the ratings
EWG provides information on cleaning product ingredients from the published scientific... continue reading →
EWG provides information on cleaning product ingredients from published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors that determine actual health risks, if any. (Hide)
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