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Propyl - Gallate

Propyl - Gallate
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Overall Propyl - Gallate is of moderate concern in food.

The overall ingredient concern is determined by using a weight of evidence evaluation of the known safety or hazards. In calculating an overall ingredient score multiple findings of low concern may lead to an overall moderate concern rating, or multiple moderate concerns may lead to a high concern rating. For more details read EWG's ingredient concern methodology.

Specific concerns for Propyl - Gallate

Concern
 
Level of Concern in Food
 
Source
The National Toxicology Program reports this substance shows equivocal evidence of carcinogenicity. Some male rats developed tumors and two female rats developed rare brain tumors.
 
moderate
National Toxicology Program. 1982. Carcinogenesis Bioassay of Propyl Gallate (CAS No. 121-79-9) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Feed Study).
A peer-reviewed study found this substance may have effects on endocrine signaling.
 
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Alessio Amadasi, Andrea Mozzarelli, Clara Meda, Adriana Maggi & Pietro Cozzini. 2009. Identification of xenoestrogens in food additives by an integrated in silico and in vitro approach. Chemical research in toxicology 22(1), 52-63.
A peer-reviewed study found this substance may have effects on hormone signaling.
 
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Marcel G. R. ter Veld, Bastiaan Schouten, Jochem Louisse, Daan S. van Es, Paul T. van der Saag, Ivonne M. C. M. Rietjens & Albertinka J. Murk. 2006. Estrogenic potency of food-packaging-associated plasticizers and antioxidants as detected in ERalpha and ERbeta reporter gene cell lines. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 54(12), 4407-16.
NTP Toxcast scored 0.5-1.5
 
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EWG Toxcast Analysis - National Toxicology Program (NTP)
 

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