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Artificial Yellow Color

Artificial Yellow Color
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Overall Artificial Yellow Color is of moderate concern in food.

The overall ingredient concern is determined by using a weight of evidence evaluation of the known safety or hazards. In calculating an overall ingredient score multiple findings of low concern may lead to an overall moderate concern rating, or multiple moderate concerns may lead to a high concern rating. For more details read EWG's ingredient concern methodology.

Specific concerns for Artificial Yellow Color

Concern
 
Level of Concern in Food
 
Source
Review article concluded that chemical can cause hyperactivity in children.
 
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Kobylewski, S. & Jacobson, M.F. 2012. Toxicology of food dyes. International journal of occupational and environmental health 18(3), 220-46. - Peer Reviewed Literature
Review article concluded that chemical can cause hyperactivity in children.
 
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Kobylewski, S. & Jacobson, M.F. 2012. Toxicology of food dyes. International journal of occupational and environmental health 18(3), 220-46. - Peer Reviewed Literature
The European Food Safety Authority concluded that this substance had the potential to impact testicular health.
 
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European Food Safety Authority. 2009. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Sunset Yellow FCF (E 110) as a food additive. EFSA Journal 7(11), 1330.
EFSA concludes there is limited evidence that Yellow 6 in a mixture with other synthetic colours and sodium benzoate has a "small and statistically significant effect on activity and attention in children selected from the general population"
 
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European Food Safety Authority. 2009. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Sunset Yellow FCF (E 110) as a food additive. EFSA Journal 7(11), 1330.
A review article reports mixed evidence of genotoxicity.
 
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Amchova, P., H. Kotolova & J. Ruda-Kucerova. 2015. Health safety issues of synthetic food colorants. Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP 73(3), 914-22. - Peer Reviewed Literature
A review article reports evidence of impacts on male gonads in rats.
 
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Amchova, P., H. Kotolova & J. Ruda-Kucerova. 2015. Health safety issues of synthetic food colorants. Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP 73(3), 914-22. - Peer Reviewed Literature
A review article reports mixed evidence of genotoxicity.
 
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Amchova, P., H. Kotolova & J. Ruda-Kucerova. 2015. Health safety issues of synthetic food colorants. Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP 73(3), 914-22. - Peer Reviewed Literature
A review article reports evidence of impacts on male gonads in rats.
 
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Amchova, P., H. Kotolova & J. Ruda-Kucerova. 2015. Health safety issues of synthetic food colorants. Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP 73(3), 914-22. - Peer Reviewed Literature
A review article conclused that this substance may be carcinogenic at high or cumulative exposures, which are unlikely to occur.
 
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Amchova, P., H. Kotolova & J. Ruda-Kucerova. 2015. Health safety issues of synthetic food colorants. Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP 73(3), 914-22. - Peer Reviewed Literature
A review article conclused that this substance may be carcinogenic at high or cumulative exposures, which are unlikely to occur.
 
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Amchova, P., H. Kotolova & J. Ruda-Kucerova. 2015. Health safety issues of synthetic food colorants. Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP 73(3), 914-22. - Peer Reviewed Literature
EFSA concludes that some sensitive individuals may experience allergic reactions at dose levels within the ADI.
 
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European Food Safety Authority. 2009. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Sunset Yellow FCF (E 110) as a food additive. EFSA Journal 7(11), 1330.
Review article concluded that chemical caused hypersensitivity reactions.
 
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Kobylewski, S. & Jacobson, M.F. 2012. Toxicology of food dyes. International journal of occupational and environmental health 18(3), 220-46. - Peer Reviewed Literature
Review article concluded that chemical caused hypersensitivity reactions.
 
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Kobylewski, S. & Jacobson, M.F. 2012. Toxicology of food dyes. International journal of occupational and environmental health 18(3), 220-46. - Peer Reviewed Literature
Review article concluded that chemical caused hypersensitivity reactions.
 
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Kobylewski, S. & Jacobson, M.F. 2012. Toxicology of food dyes. International journal of occupational and environmental health 18(3), 220-46. - Peer Reviewed Literature
Review article concluded that chemical caused hypersensitivity reactions.
 
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Kobylewski, S. & Jacobson, M.F. 2012. Toxicology of food dyes. International journal of occupational and environmental health 18(3), 220-46. - Peer Reviewed Literature
Allergic reactions have been reported in humans.
 
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European Commission, Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS). 2004. OPINION OF THE SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE ON COSMETIC PRODUCTS AND NON-FOOD PRODUCTS INTENDED FOR CONSUMERS Concerning Acid Yellow 23. SCCNFP/0786/04.
Allergic reactions have been reported in humans.
 
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European Commission, Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS). 2004. OPINION OF THE SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE ON COSMETIC PRODUCTS AND NON-FOOD PRODUCTS INTENDED FOR CONSUMERS Concerning Acid Yellow 23. SCCNFP/0786/04.
NTP Toxcast scored 1.5-2.5
 
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EWG Toxcast Analysis - National Toxicology Program (NTP)
NTP Toxcast scored 1.5-2.5
 
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EWG Toxcast Analysis - National Toxicology Program (NTP)
NTP Toxcast scored 1.5-2.5
 
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EWG Toxcast Analysis - National Toxicology Program (NTP)
NTP Toxcast scored 1.5-2.5
 
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EWG Toxcast Analysis - National Toxicology Program (NTP)
Developmental neurotoxicity observed in chicken embryos.
 
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Aysegul Ozdemir Ovalioglu, Talat Cem Ovalioglu, Gokhan Canaz, Aysegul Esen Aydin, Sema Arslan, Mehmet Sar & Erhan Emel. 2020. Effects of Tartrazine on Neural Tube Development in the Early Stage of Chicken Embryos. Turkish neurosurgery 30(4), 583-587.

Concerns from impurities

Concern
 
Level of Concern in Food
 
Source
Impurity: CADMIUM
Suspected of causing genetic defects
 
lower
GHS Hazard Codes - EU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes
Impurity: CADMIUM
May cause cancer
 
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GHS Hazard Codes - EU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes
Impurity: CADMIUM
Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure
 
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GHS Hazard Codes - EU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes
Impurity: CADMIUM
Suspected of damaging fertility.
 
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GHS Hazard Codes - EU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes
Impurity: CADMIUM
Suspected of damaging the unborn child.
 
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GHS Hazard Codes - EU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes
Impurity: CADMIUM
Carcinogenic to humans
 
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Agents classified by the IARC Monographs (through Volume 127) - International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
Impurity: CADMIUM
Known To Be Human Carcinogen
 
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NTP 14th Report on Carcinogens - National Toxicology Program (NTP)
Impurity: BIPHENYL-2-YLAMINE
Suspected of causing cancer
 
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GHS Hazard Codes - EU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes
Impurity: CADMIUM
Probably carcinogenic to humans
 
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EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) - Cancer - Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
 

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