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Artificial Red Color

Artificial Red Color
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Overall Artificial Red Color is of lower concern in food.

The overall ingredient concern is determined by using a weight of evidence evaluation of the known safety or hazards. In calculating an overall ingredient score multiple findings of low concern may lead to an overall moderate concern rating, or multiple moderate concerns may lead to a high concern rating. For more details read EWG's ingredient concern methodology.

Specific concerns for Artificial Red Color

Concern
 
Level of Concern in Food
 
Source
A National Toxicology Program (NTP) study reports that this substance causes male reproductive effects in animals at high doses.
 
lower
1979. Bioassay of titanium dioxide for possible carcinogenicity. National Cancer Institute carcinogenesis technical report series 97, 1-123.
A National Toxicology Program (NTP) study reports that this substance causes fibrosis of the heart in animals at high doses.
 
lower
1979. Bioassay of titanium dioxide for possible carcinogenicity. National Cancer Institute carcinogenesis technical report series 97, 1-123.
Possibly carcinogenic to humans
 
lower
IARC 103 - IARC
A peer-reviewed study reports that nanoparticles of this substance accumulate in and may damage the kidneys in animals at high doses.
 
lower
Jiangxue Wang, Yuliang Zhao, Fang Jiao, Yufeng Li, Jin Sun, Bai Li, Yuxi Gao, Guang Jia, Yongmei Ma, Tiancheng Wang, Hongwei Yu, Chunying Chen, Guoqiang Zhou & Zhifang Chai. 2007. Acute toxicity and biodistribution of different sized titanium dioxide particles in mice after oral administration. Toxicology letters 168(2), 176-85.
A peer-reviewed study reports that nanoparticles of this substance accumulate in and may damage the liver in animals at high doses.
 
lower
Jiangxue Wang, Yuliang Zhao, Fang Jiao, Yufeng Li, Jin Sun, Bai Li, Yuxi Gao, Guang Jia, Yongmei Ma, Tiancheng Wang, Hongwei Yu, Chunying Chen, Guoqiang Zhou & Zhifang Chai. 2007. Acute toxicity and biodistribution of different sized titanium dioxide particles in mice after oral administration. Toxicology letters 168(2), 176-85.
 

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