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Coffee

Coffee
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Overall Coffee is of lower concern in food.

The overall ingredient concern is determined by using a weight of evidence evaluation of the known safety or hazards. In calculating an overall ingredient score multiple findings of low concern may lead to an overall moderate concern rating, or multiple moderate concerns may lead to a high concern rating. For more details read EWG's ingredient concern methodology.

Specific concerns for Coffee

Concerns from impurities

Concern
 
Level of Concern in Food
 
Source
Impurity: CAFFEINE
A review article reports that this substance is associated with small reductions in infant birth weight.
 
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T. S. Hinds, W. L. West, E. M. Knight & B. F. Harland. 1996. The effect of caffeine on pregnancy outcome variables. Nutrition reviews 54(7), 203-7.
Impurity: CAFFEINE
NTP Toxcast scored 0.5-1.5
 
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EWG Toxcast Analysis - National Toxicology Program (NTP)
Impurity: CAFFEINE
A peer-reviewed study showed that maternal intake of this substance is associated with low birth weight (moderate to high intake, 2-4 cups).
 
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Verena Sengpiel, Bo Jacobsson, Jan Alexander, Helle Margrete Meltzer, Margaretha Haugen, Ronny Myhre, Jakob Grove, Staffan Nilsson, Jonas Bacelis, Elisabeth Elind & Anne-Lise Brantsæter. 2013. Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy is associated with birth weight but not with gestational length: results from a large prospective observational cohort study. BMC medicine 11, 42.
 

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