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Artificial Color Yellow 6

Artificial Color Yellow 6
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Overall Artificial Color Yellow 6 is of moderate concern in food.

The overall ingredient concern is determined by using a weight of evidence evaluation of the known safety or hazards. In calculating an overall ingredient score multiple findings of low concern may lead to an overall moderate concern rating, or multiple moderate concerns may lead to a high concern rating. For more details read EWG's ingredient concern methodology.

Specific concerns for Artificial Color Yellow 6

Concern
 
Level of Concern in Food
 
Source
EFSA finds that there is "limited evidence" that Yellow 6 in a mixture with other synthetic colours and sodium benzoate has a "small and statistically significant effect on activity and attention in children selected from the general population"
 
lower
European Food Safety Authority. 2009. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Sunset Yellow FCF (E 110) as a food additive. EFSA Journal 7(11), 1330.
A peer-reviewed study reports this substance shows estrogenic activity in a human cell line.
 
lower
Andrew Axon, Felicity E. B. May, Luke E. Gaughan, Faith M. Williams, Peter G. Blain & Matthew C. Wright. 2012. Tartrazine and sunset yellow are xenoestrogens in a new screening assay to identify modulators of human oestrogen receptor transcriptional activity. Toxicology 298(1-3), 40-51.
EFSA concludes that some sensitive individuals may experience allergic reactions at dose levels within the ADI
 
lower
European Food Safety Authority. 2009. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Sunset Yellow FCF (E 110) as a food additive. EFSA Journal 7(11), 1330.
Review article concluded that chemical caused hypersensitivity reactions.
 
lower for people
with special conditions
Sarah Kobylewski & Michael F. Jacobson. 2012. Toxicology of food dyes. International journal of occupational and environmental health 18(3), 220-46.
A peer-reviewed study found that this substance caused changes to testes weights in animals at high doses.
 
lower
European Food Safety Authority. 2009. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Sunset Yellow FCF (E 110) as a food additive. EFSA Journal 7(11), 1330.
Reduced pup bodyweight at 750 mg/kg-day and higher.
 
lower
Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). 2012. Safety evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants, WHO Food Additives Series: 65. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser.
NTP Toxcast scored 0.5-1.5
 
lower
EWG Toxcast Analysis - National Toxicology Program (NTP)

Concerns from impurities

Concern
 
Level of Concern in Food
 
Source
Impurity: 4-AMINOBIPHENYL
Known to cause cancer
 
lower
Prop 65 - CA Proposition 65
Impurity: 4-AMINOBIPHENYL
May cause cancer
 
lower
GHS Hazard Codes - EU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes
Impurity: 4-AMINOBIPHENYL
Carcinogenic to humans
 
lower
IARC 103 - IARC
Impurity: 4-AMINOBIPHENYL
Known To Be Human Carcinogen
 
lower
NTP 12th RoC - National Toxicology Program (NTP)
Impurity: BENZIDINE
May cause cancer
 
lower
GHS Hazard Codes - EU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes
Impurity: BENZIDINE
Carcinogenic to humans
 
lower
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) - Cancer - Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Impurity: BENZIDINE
Carcinogenic to humans
 
lower
IARC 103 - IARC
Impurity: BENZIDINE
Known to cause cancer
 
lower
Prop 65 - CA Proposition 65
Impurity: BENZIDINE
Known To Be Human Carcinogen
 
lower
NTP 12th RoC - National Toxicology Program (NTP)
Impurity: BENZIDINE
NTP Toxcast scored 0.5-1.5
 
lower
EWG Toxcast Analysis - National Toxicology Program (NTP)
 

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