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Artificial Color Yellow 5

Artificial Color Yellow 5
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Overall Artificial Color Yellow 5 is of moderate concern in food.

The overall ingredient concern is determined by using a weight of evidence evaluation of the known safety or hazards. In calculating an overall ingredient score multiple findings of low concern may lead to an overall moderate concern rating, or multiple moderate concerns may lead to a high concern rating. For more details read EWG's ingredient concern methodology.

Specific concerns for Artificial Color Yellow 5

Concern
 
Level of Concern in Food
 
Source
European Food Safety Authority reviewed study of children ingesting food colorings and concluded that it provided "limited evidence" that the mixture had a small and statistically significant effect on activity and attention in children.
 
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European Food Safety Authority & Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Food Contact Materials (AFC). 2008. Assessment of the results of the study by McCann et al. (2007) on the effect of some colours and sodium benzoate on children’s behaviour, Question No EFSA-Q-2007-171. EFSA Journall 660, 1.
EFSA finds that there is "limited evidence" that Yellow 5 in a mixture with other synthetic colours and sodium benzoate has a "small and statistically significant effect on activity and attention in children selected from the general population."
 
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European Food Safety Authority. 2009. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation Tartrazine (E 102). EFSA Journal 7(11), 1331.
Review article concluded that chemical can cause hyperactivity in children
 
lower for people
with special conditions
Sarah Kobylewski & Michael F. Jacobson. 2012. Toxicology of food dyes. International journal of occupational and environmental health 18(3), 220-46.
EFSA concludes that some sensitive individuals may experience allergic reactions at dose levels within the ADI.
 
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European Food Safety Authority. 2009. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation Tartrazine (E 102). EFSA Journal 7(11), 1331.
Eating a mix of artificial colors with sodium benzoate result in increased hyperactivity in 3-year-old and 8/9-year-old children in the general population.
 
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Donna McCann, John O. Warner, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, Emily Prince, Lucy Porteous, Kris Lok, Elizabeth Kitchin, Kate Grimshaw, Lindy Dalen, Debbie Crumpler, Alison Cooper, Angelina Barrett & Jim Stevenson. 2007. Food additives and hyperactive behaviour in 3-year-old and 8/9-year-old children in the community: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 370(9598), 1560-7.
Ingestion of tartrazine was associated with behavioral changes in irritability, restlessness, and sleep disturbance in some children.
 
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K. S. Rowe & K. J. Rowe. 1994. Synthetic food coloring and behavior: a dose response effect in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, repeated-measures study. The Journal of pediatrics 125(5 Pt 1), 691-8.
A peer-reviewed study reports this substance shows estrogenic activity in a human cell line.
 
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Andrew Axon, Felicity E. B. May, Luke E. Gaughan, Faith M. Williams, Peter G. Blain & Matthew C. Wright. 2012. Tartrazine and sunset yellow are xenoestrogens in a new screening assay to identify modulators of human oestrogen receptor transcriptional activity. Toxicology 298(1-3), 40-51.
NTP Toxcast scored 0.5-1.5
 
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EWG Toxcast Analysis - National Toxicology Program (NTP)
A peer-reviewed study found that this substance caused neurobehavioral effects in animals at high doses.
 
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Toyohito Tanaka. 2006. Reproductive and neurobehavioural toxicity study of tartrazine administered to mice in the diet. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 44(2), 179-87.
A peer-reviewed study found that this substance caused neurobehavioral effects in animals at high doses.
 
lower
Toyohito Tanaka, Osamu Takahashi, Shinshi Oishi & Akio Ogata. 2008. Effects of tartrazine on exploratory behavior in a three-generation toxicity study in mice. Reproductive toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.) 26(2), 156-63.
A peer-reviewed study found that this substance caused neurobehavioral effects in animals at high doses.
 
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Kamel, M.M. & El-lethey, H.S. 2011. The Potential Health Hazard of Tartrazine and Levels of Hyperactivity, Anxiety-Like Symptoms, Depression and Anti-social behaviour in Rats. Journal of American Science 7(6), 1211-8.

Concerns from impurities

Concern
 
Level of Concern in Food
 
Source
Impurity: BENZIDINE
Carcinogenic to humans
 
lower
IARC 103 - IARC
Impurity: 4-AMINOBIPHENYL
Known To Be Human Carcinogen
 
lower
NTP 12th RoC - National Toxicology Program (NTP)
Impurity: 4-AMINOBIPHENYL
Carcinogenic to humans
 
lower
IARC 103 - IARC
Impurity: BENZIDINE
Known To Be Human Carcinogen
 
lower
NTP 12th RoC - National Toxicology Program (NTP)
Impurity: 4-AMINOBIPHENYL
Known to cause cancer
 
lower
Prop 65 - CA Proposition 65
Impurity: BENZIDINE
Known to cause cancer
 
lower
Prop 65 - CA Proposition 65
Impurity: 4-AMINOBIPHENYL
May cause cancer
 
lower
GHS Hazard Codes - EU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes
Impurity: BENZIDINE
May cause cancer
 
lower
GHS Hazard Codes - EU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes
Impurity: BENZIDINE
Carcinogenic to humans
 
lower
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) - Cancer - Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Impurity: BENZIDINE
NTP Toxcast scored 0.5-1.5
 
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EWG Toxcast Analysis - National Toxicology Program (NTP)
 

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