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LARD AND HYDROGENATED LARD WITH BHA AND BHT ADDED TO PROTECT FLAVOR

LARD AND HYDROGENATED LARD WITH BHA AND BHT ADDED TO PROTECT FLAVOR
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Overall LARD AND HYDROGENATED LARD WITH BHA AND BHT ADDED TO PROTECT FLAVOR is of higher concern in food.

The overall ingredient concern is determined by using a weight of evidence evaluation of the known safety or hazards. In calculating an overall ingredient score multiple findings of low concern may lead to an overall moderate concern rating, or multiple moderate concerns may lead to a high concern rating. For more details read EWG's ingredient concern methodology.

Specific concerns for LARD AND HYDROGENATED LARD WITH BHA AND BHT ADDED TO PROTECT FLAVOR

Concern
 
Level of Concern in Food
 
Source
Known to cause cancer
 
higher
California OEHHA (Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment): Proposition 65 List (2020 Update)
Clear evidence of endocrine disruption in at least one animal study
 
higher
EU Endocrine: EU Endocrine Disrupters
Reasonably Anticipated To Be Human Carcinogen
 
higher
National Toxicology Program (NTP): NTP 14th Report on Carcinogens
Possibly carcinogenic to humans
 
moderate
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Agents classified by the IARC Monographs (through Volume 127)
A peer-reviewed study found this substance caused adverse developmental effects in rats.
 
lower
C. V. Vorhees, R. E. Butcher, R. L. Brunner & T. J. Sobotka. 1981. Developmental neurobehavioural toxicity of butylated hydroxytoluene in rats. Food and cosmetics toxicology 19(2), 153-62.
This peer-reviewed study reports this substance is a tumor promoter.
 
lower
Colin T. Shearn, Kristofer S. Fritz & John A. Thompson. 2011. Protein damage from electrophiles and oxidants in lungs of mice chronically exposed to the tumor promoter butylated hydroxytoluene. Chemico-biological interactions 192(3), 278-86.
This peer-reviewed study reports this substance is a tumor promoter.
 
lower
Haris G. Vikis, Andrew E. Gelman, Andrew Franklin, Lauren Stein, Amy Rymaszewski, Jihong Zhu, Pengyuan Liu, Jay W. Tichelaar, Alexander S. Krupnick & Ming You. 2011. Neutrophils are required for 3-methylcholanthrene-initiated, butylated hydroxytoluene-promoted lung carcinogenesis. Molecular carcinogenesis.
NTP Toxcast scored 3.5-4.5
 
lower
National Toxicology Program (NTP): EWG Toxcast Analysis
 

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