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LICORICE EXTRACTS

LICORICE EXTRACTS
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Overall LICORICE EXTRACTS is of moderate concern in food.

The overall ingredient concern is determined by using a weight of evidence evaluation of the known safety or hazards. In calculating an overall ingredient score multiple findings of low concern may lead to an overall moderate concern rating, or multiple moderate concerns may lead to a high concern rating. For more details read EWG's ingredient concern methodology.

Specific concerns for LICORICE EXTRACTS

Concern
 
Level of Concern in Food
 
Source
Licorice and its derivative substances disrupt function of the adrenal (corticosteroid hormone) axis.
 
lower
Somayeh Nazari, Maryam Rameshrad & Hossein zadeh. 2017. Toxicological Effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Licorice): A Review. Phytotherapy research : PTR 31(11), 1635-1650.
Licorice and its constituents/derivatives affect the cardiovascular system by disrupting hormones involved in water/salt balance.
 
lower
Mikkel R. Deutch, Daniela Grimm, Markus Wehland, Manfred Infanger & Marcus Krüger. 2019. Bioactive Candy: Effects of Licorice on the Cardiovascular System. Foods (Basel, Switzerland) 8(10).
Licorice consumption during pregnancy is linked to adverse birth outcomes.
 
lower
Somayeh Nazari, Maryam Rameshrad & Hossein zadeh. 2017. Toxicological Effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Licorice): A Review. Phytotherapy research : PTR 31(11), 1635-1650.
Anti-androgenic effects of licorice have been observed in humans.
 
lower
Paul Grant & Shamin Ramasamy. 2012. An update on plant derived anti-androgens. International journal of endocrinology and metabolism 10(2), 497-502.
Licorice derivatives have exhibited neuroprotective, sedative, and antidepressant effects in various studies, indicating a capacity to elicit nervous system effects.
 
lower
Giulia Pastorino, Laura Cornara, Sónia Soares, Francisca Rodrigues & M. Beatriz P. P. Oliveira. 2018. Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra): A phytochemical and pharmacological review. Phytotherapy research : PTR 32(12), 2323-2339.
Licorice and its constituents/derivatives can impact immune function.
 
lower
Giulia Pastorino, Laura Cornara, Sónia Soares, Francisca Rodrigues & M. Beatriz P. P. Oliveira. 2018. Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra): A phytochemical and pharmacological review. Phytotherapy research : PTR 32(12), 2323-2339.
Licorice and its constituents/derivatives affect the cardiovascular system by disrupting hormones involved in water/salt balance.
 
lower
Mikkel R. Deutch, Daniela Grimm, Markus Wehland, Manfred Infanger & Marcus Krüger. 2019. Bioactive Candy: Effects of Licorice on the Cardiovascular System. Foods (Basel, Switzerland) 8(10).
Licorice extract affected male reprodutive function in rats.
 
lower
Somayeh Nazari, Maryam Rameshrad & Hossein zadeh. 2017. Toxicological Effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Licorice): A Review. Phytotherapy research : PTR 31(11), 1635-1650.
Licorice extract exhibits estrogenic activity in vitro.
 
lower
D. T. Zava, M. Blen & G. Duwe. 1997. Estrogenic activity of natural and synthetic estrogens in human breast cancer cells in culture. Environmental health perspectives 105 Suppl 3, 637-45.
Licorice extracts impacted pituitary hormone secretion in vitro and in vivo in rats.
 
lower
Ho Young Lee, Dae Young Jung, Hyekyung Ha, Sam Sik Kang, Ju Sun Kim & Chungsook Kim. 2007. Induction of growth hormone release by glycyrrhizae radix on rat. Journal of biochemistry and molecular biology 40(6), 979-85.
Effects on liver enzyme function have been observed in humans and animals. Chronic exposure to licorice extract caused liver damage in fish.
 
lower
Somayeh Nazari, Maryam Rameshrad & Hossein zadeh. 2017. Toxicological Effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Licorice): A Review. Phytotherapy research : PTR 31(11), 1635-1650.
 

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