Level of Concern in Food
The National Toxicology Program reports this substance shows equivocal evidence of carcinogenicity. Some male rats developed tumors and two female rats developed rare brain tumors.
National Toxicology Program. 1982. Carcinogenesis Bioassay of Propyl Gallate (CAS No. 121-79-9) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Feed Study).
A peer-reviewed study found this substance may have effects on endocrine signaling.
Alessio Amadasi, Andrea Mozzarelli, Clara Meda, Adriana Maggi & Pietro Cozzini. 2009. Identification of xenoestrogens in food additives by an integrated in silico and in vitro approach. Chemical research in toxicology 22(1), 52-63.
A peer-reviewed study found this substance may have effects on hormone signaling.
Marcel G. R. ter Veld, Bastiaan Schouten, Jochem Louisse, Daan S. van Es, Paul T. van der Saag, Ivonne M. C. M. Rietjens & Albertinka J. Murk. 2006. Estrogenic potency of food-packaging-associated plasticizers and antioxidants as detected in ERalpha and ERbeta reporter gene cell lines. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 54(12), 4407-16.
NTP Toxcast scored 2.5-3.5
National Toxicology Program (NTP): EWG Toxcast Analysis