FDA finds this substance to be an animal carcinogen, causing tumors in rats.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 1990. Termination of provisional listings of FD&C Red No. 3 for use in cosmetics and externally applied drugs and of lakes of FD&C Red No. 3 for all uses. Federal Register 55, 3516.
Synthetic food dyes are associated with adverse neurobehavioral outcomes in children.
2021. Potential Neurobehavioral Effects of Synthetic Food Dyes in Children. California Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment.
The European Food Safety Authority reports this substance causes thyroid tumors in rodents with limited relevance to humans.
European Food Safety Authority & Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS). 2010. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Erythrosine (E 127) as a food additive. EFSA Journal 9(1), 1854.
NTP Toxcast scored 2.5-3.5
National Toxicology Program (NTP): EWG Toxcast Analysis
Organohalogen compounds are often found to be persistent in the environment, bioaccumulative, and associated with chronic health concerns
Prasada Rao S. Kodavanti & Bommanna G. Loganathan. 2017. Organohalogen Pollutants and Human Health. International Encyclopedia of Public Health, 359-366.