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National Drinking Water Database
Monochlorobenzene (Chlorobenzene) in Alabama
Monochlorobenzene is used as a solvent in pesticides, a degreasing agent and a chemical intermediate; it is released as a pollutant from various industrial chemical factories and has been found in surface and groundwater.
Chlorobenzene is an industrial chemical used as a degreasing agent, a solvent in pesticide formulations and a chemical intermediate to make other chemicals (World Health Organization 2004a). In the past, chlorobenzene had been used in manufacture of chemicals such as phenol and the pesticide DDT, which contributed to high levels of contamination in rivers and water near hazardous waste sites.
Although chlorobenzene production and use have declined (USEPA 2008d), it can still be found in water as the result of emissions from industrial chemical and agricultural chemical factories and from pesticide application (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) 1990c). In 2002, 927,397 pounds of chlorobenzene were released into the air, water and land (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) 2009i).
According to EPA, chlorobenzene has the potential to cause liver, kidney and central nervous system damage from long-term exposure at levels above the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) in drinking water (USEPA 2002t).
The Most Polluted Communities in Alabama
1 water utilities reported detecting Monochlorobenzene (Chlorobenzene) in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies
Ranked by highest average Monochlorobenzene (Chlorobenzene) level
|Rank||System||Population Served||Positive test results of total reported tests||Average Level|
|1||Grove Hill Water Works|
Grove Hill, AL
|3,450||1 of 2||0.2 ppb|
(0 to 0.4 ppb)
Health Based Limits for Monochlorobenzene (Chlorobenzene)
|Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)||The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||100 ppb|
|Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)||A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||100 ppb|
|Lifetime health-based limit, non-cancer risk||Concentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for a lifetime of exposure. The Lifetime health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is based on exposure for a a 70-kg adult consuming 2 liters of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||100 ppb|
|EPA Human Health Water Quality Criteria||Water quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||130 ppb|
|California Public Health Goals||Defined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.||200 ppb|
|Drinking Water Equivalent Level||A lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||700 ppb|
|Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposure||Concentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||4000 ppb|
|Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposure||Concentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||4000 ppb|
Violation Summary for Monochlorobenzene (Chlorobenzene) in Alabama
Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards in Alabama since 2004
|Violation Type||Number of Violations|
|Failure to monitor regularly||55|