National Drinking Water Database
1,1,2-Trichloroethane in California
1,1,2-Trichloroethane is used in production of synthetic fibers, plastic wraps and adhesives; it is released as a pollutant from various chemical manufacturing factories. [read more]
1,1,2-Trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCE) is a synthetic chemical used primarily to make vinylidene chloride (also called 1,1-dichloroethylene), which is in turn used to make synthetic fibers and plastic wraps such as saran wrap. Other applications include use as a solvent for fats, oils, waxes and resins; and production of adhesives, Teflon tubing, lacquer and coating formulations (Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB) 1994).
In 2002, U.S. industrial facilities released 40,888 pounds of 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCE) into the environment. Emissions from chemical plants accounted for over 98 percent of 1,1,2-TCE releases reported to the Toxics Release Inventory (USEPA 2009i). 1,1,2-Trichloroethane is a High Production Volume (HPV) chemical, with more than 100 million pounds of 1,1,2-TCE produced in the U.S. annually (USEPA 1990a, 2008d).
Drinking water contaminant fact sheets written by EPA note that short-term exposure to 1,1,2-TCE in drinking water at levels above the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of five parts per billion (ppb) may cause irritation of the gastrointestinal tract, and damage to the lung and liver. Long-term exposure to levels above the MCL may cause liver and kidney damage and cancer (USEPA 2009b).
EPA classifies 1,1,2-TCE as a "possible" human carcinogen (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) 1989a; USEPA 2002a). Studies in laboratory animals also link 1,1,2-TCE to damage to the central nervous system and immune system (ATSDR 1989a).
The Most Polluted Communities in California
2 water utilities reported detecting 1,1,2-Trichloroethane in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies
Ranked by highest average 1,1,2-Trichloroethane level
|Rank||System||Population Served||Positive test results of total reported tests||Average Level|
|1||City of Modesto|
|190,106||3 of 220||< 0.01 ppb|
(0 to 1 ppb)
|2||Calam - Parkway|
|43,996||2 of 113||< 0.01 ppb|
(0 to 0.12 ppb)
Health Based Limits for 1,1,2-Trichloroethane
|California Public Health Goals||Defined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.||0.3 ppb|
|EPA Human Health Water Quality Criteria||Water quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||0.59 ppb|
|One in one million (10-6) Cancer Risk||The concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||0.6 ppb|
|Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)||A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||3 ppb|
|Lifetime health-based limit, non-cancer risk||Concentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for a lifetime of exposure. The Lifetime health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is based on exposure for a a 70-kg adult consuming 2 liters of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||3 ppb|
|Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)||The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||5 ppb|
|One in ten thousand (10-4) Cancer Risk||The concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 10,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||60 ppb|
|Drinking Water Equivalent Level||A lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||100 ppb|
|Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposure||Concentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||400 ppb|
|Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposure||Concentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||600 ppb|
Violation Summary for 1,1,2-Trichloroethane in California
Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards in California since 2004
|Violation Type||Number of Violations|
|Failure to monitor regularly||7|