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National Drinking Water Database


Total haloacetic acids (HAAs) in Alaska


Total haloacetic acids refers to the sum of the concentrations of five related disinfection byproducts in a water sample: dichloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, monochloroacetic acid, monobromoacetic acid and dibromoacetic acid. [read more]

The Most Polluted Communities in Alaska

177 water utilities reported detecting Total haloacetic acids (HAAs) in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Total haloacetic acids (HAAs) level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Gulkana Village
Gakona, AK
836 of 6161.67 ppb
(125 to 180 ppb)
2Thorne Bay
Thorne Bay, AK
95712 of 12129.64 ppb
(4.7 to 176 ppb)
3Chalkyitsik Village Water
Chalkyitsik, AK
11010 of 10111.94 ppb
(4.12 to 176 ppb)
4Kake Municipal Water
Kake, AK
83313 of 1392.76 ppb
(35.5 to 138 ppb)
5Unalakleet City Water Supply
Unalakleet, AK
75711 of 1190.57 ppb
(40.3 to 152 ppb)
6Mountain Point Service Area
Ketchikan, AK
97514 of 1681.58 ppb
(0 to 157 ppb)
7Ykhc Hospital - Bethel
Bethel, AK
5107 of 781.22 ppb
(40.4 to 93.1 ppb)
8Wales Water System
Wales, AK
1738 of 1177.34 ppb
(0 to 150 ppb)
9Shishmaref Water System
Shishmaref, AK
57213 of 1374.99 ppb
(33.5 to 147 ppb)
10Buckland Water System
Buckland, AK
4179 of 974.26 ppb
(8.38 to 180 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Total haloacetic acids (HAAs)

StandardDescriptionLevel
One in one million (10-6) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.7 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.60 ppb
One in ten thousand (10-4) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 10,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.70 ppb
Lifetime health-based limit, non-cancer riskConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for a lifetime of exposure. The Lifetime health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is based on exposure for a a 70-kg adult consuming 2 liters of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.70 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.450 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.5200 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.5200 ppb

Violation Summary for Total haloacetic acids (HAAs) in Alaska

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards in Alaska since 2004

Violation TypeNumber of Violations
Monitoring and Reporting Disinfection Byproduct Rule376
Over maximum contaminant level, Average205
Over maximum contaminant level, Single Sample42