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National Drinking Water Database


Dichloroacetic acid in Hawaii


Dichloroacetic acid is a disinfection byproduct regulated by EPA as one of five haloacetic acids that are formed when chlorine, chloramines or other disinfectants react with organic and inorganic matter in water. [read more]

The Most Polluted Communities in Hawaii

27 water utilities reported detecting Dichloroacetic acid in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Dichloroacetic acid level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Lower Kula
Wailuku, HI
3,2132 of 212.37 ppb
(11.03 to 13.7 ppb)
2Upper Kula
Wailuku, HI
6,6003 of 310.66 ppb
(7.27 to 12.4 ppb)
3Maunaloa-Kaluakoi
Honolulu, HI
1,0009 of 98.7 ppb
(2.1 to 13.6 ppb)
4Makawao
Wailuku, HI
27,6422 of 28.6 ppb
(3.68 to 13.53 ppb)
5Lahaina
Wailuku, HI
17,9672 of 23.42 ppb
(2.97 to 3.86 ppb)
6South Kohala
Hilo, HI
12,1096 of 73.18 ppb
(0 to 6.6 ppb)
7Kulani Correct. Facility
Honolulu, HI
2811 of 21.2 ppb
(0 to 2.4 ppb)
8Hawaii Volcanoes Nat.park
Hawaii National Park, HI
3,3741 of 21 ppb
(0 to 2 ppb)
9Wailuku
Wailuku, HI
61,3462 of 20.97 ppb
(0.36 to 1.58 ppb)
10Lihue-Kapaa Dow
Lihue, HI
30,0007 of 80.85 ppb
(0 to 1.99 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Dichloroacetic acid

StandardDescriptionLevel
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0 ppb
One in one million (10-6) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.7 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.60 ppb
One in ten thousand (10-4) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 10,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.70 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.100 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.5000 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.5000 ppb

Violation Summary for Dichloroacetic acid in Hawaii

There are no violations reported for this contaminant in Hawaii