National Drinking Water Database
Naphthalene in Virginia
Naphthalene is an intermediate in chemical manufacturing, a moth repellent, a fungicide, and a pollutant from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. [read more]
Naphthalene is a chemical used in the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry 2005c).
Naphthalene is classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans based on its ability to cause cancers in animals and some evidence for laryngeal and colorectal cancer in humans (Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) 1998a; International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) 2002). Naphthalene causes lung tumors, cataracts, lens opacities, neurological impairment and decreased weight gain (IRIS 1998a).
Newborns are particularly susceptible to the harmful health effects of naphthalene. Naphthalene can move from a pregnant woman's blood to the unborn baby's blood. Naphthalene has been detected in some samples of breast milk from the general U.S. population (ATSDR 2005c).
Millions of pounds of naphthalene are released into the environment every year, with the bulk coming from primary metal, chemical and food manufacturers. Releases tend to be heavier along the southern coast and around the Great Lakes. Texas, Florida and Maryland all experienced releases of over 500,000 lbs of naphthalene in 2002 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) 2009i).
The Most Polluted Communities in Virginia
4 water utilities reported detecting Naphthalene in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies
Ranked by highest average Naphthalene level
|Rank||System||Population Served||Positive test results of total reported tests||Average Level|
|1||Cedar Knoll Apt|
Broad Run, VA
|50||1 of 3||0.53 ppb|
(0 to 1.6 ppb)
|2||Bland Correctional Center|
|750||1 of 8||0.1 ppb|
(0 to 0.8 ppb)
|2,134||1 of 11||0.09 ppb|
(0 to 1 ppb)
|4||Knoll Woods/Ivy Acres|
|250||1 of 7||0.07 ppb|
(0 to 0.5 ppb)
Health Based Limits for Naphthalene
|Lifetime health-based limit, non-cancer risk||Concentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for a lifetime of exposure. The Lifetime health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is based on exposure for a a 70-kg adult consuming 2 liters of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||100 ppb|
|Health-Based Screening Level||A benchmark concentration of contaminants in water that may be of potential concern for human health, if exceeded. For noncarcinogens, the HBSL represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse effects over a lifetime of exposure. For carcinogens, the HBSL range represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that corresponds to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 chance in 1 million to 1 chance in 10 thousand. Source: U.S. Geological Survey.||100 ppb|
|Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposure||Concentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||500 ppb|
|Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposure||Concentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||500 ppb|
|Drinking Water Equivalent Level||A lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||700 ppb|
Violation Summary for Naphthalene in Virginia
There are no violations reported for this contaminant in Virginia