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National Drinking Water Database
2,3,7,8-TCDD (Dioxin) in California
2,3,7,8-TCDD (Dioxin) is a carcinogenic pollutant from waste incineration and discharges from chemical factories. [read more]
Dioxin (Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin or 2,3,7,8ŠTCDD)
Dioxins are contaminating byproducts of chemical manufacturing and burning (incineration) of products that contain chlorine. Dioxins cause cancer in humans, and they are generally considered to be among the most toxic environmental contaminants known to man. As a class, dioxins are extremely toxic, persistent, bioaccumulative, and lipophilic ("fat-loving"). This means that dioxins build up and are stored in fatty tissues and fluids, such as breast milk, and can be passed on to fetuses and infants during pregnancy and lactation. Most people are exposed to dioxins through the food they eat, primarily from meat, dairy, fish and eggs.
In humans, dioxins are associated with cancer, skin lesions, damage to the nervous and immune systems, altered carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, thyroid disruption, altered menstrual cycling and cardiovascular effects (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) 2009b).
In laboratory animals, dioxins are known to cause a variety of effects including cancer and impaired reproductive, endocrine, cardiovascular, immune, respiratory, neurological and metabolic functions. In addition, dioxins cause skin disease and birth defects.
Annually, environmental releases of dioxin and dioxin compounds amount to hundreds of thousands of pounds (USEPA 2009i). The electric utility companies and chemical production industry account for the majority of these releases.
The Most Polluted Communities in California
1 water utilities reported detecting 2,3,7,8-TCDD (Dioxin) in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies
Ranked by highest average 2,3,7,8-TCDD (Dioxin) level
|Rank||System||Population Served||Positive test results of total reported tests||Average Level|
|1||City of Norco|
|25,909||1 of 2||< 0.01 ppb|
(< .01 to 3.0E-6 ppb)
Health Based Limits for 2,3,7,8-TCDD (Dioxin)
|Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)||A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||0 ppb|
|EPA Human Health Water Quality Criteria||Water quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||0 ppb|
|One in one million (10-6) Cancer Risk||The concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||0 ppb|
|One in ten thousand (10-4) Cancer Risk||The concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 10,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||<0.01 ppb|
|Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)||The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||<0.01 ppb|
|Drinking Water Equivalent Level||A lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||<0.01 ppb|
|Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposure||Concentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||<0.01 ppb|
|Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposure||Concentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||<0.01 ppb|
Violation Summary for 2,3,7,8-TCDD (Dioxin) in California
Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards in California since 2004
|Violation Type||Number of Violations|
|Failure to monitor regularly||2|