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National Drinking Water Database
Alachlor (Lasso) in Pennsylvania
Alachlor is a widely-used herbicide applied to corn, soy and sorghum; it is carcinogenic to animals and potentially carcinogenic in people. [read more]
Alachlor is a widely used herbicide applied to corn, soybeans and peanuts in the United States, with particularly heavy use in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, Ohio and Wisconsin (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) 1998a). Alachlor enters water supplies, including groundwater, surface water and drinking water, through agricultural runoff (California Environmental Protection Agency 1997b, World Health Organization (WHO) 2004a).
According to EPA, short-term exposure to alachlor can cause skin and eye irritation. Long-term exposure can damage the liver, kidney, spleen, lining of nose and eyelids, and may cause cancer (USEPA 2009b).
In laboratory rats or mice, alachlor causes tumors of the stomach, thyroid, nasal passage and lung (WHO 2004a). The Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort study of licensed pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina, has found an association between alachlor application and incidence of lymphohematopoietic cancers (Lee 2004). Another study has reported that workers with five or more years of high alachlor exposure had an increased rate of colorectal cancer (California Environmental Protection Agency 1997b). Alachlor is classified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as likely to be a human carcinogen at high doses, but not likely at low doses (USEPA 1998a).
Alachlor received considerable attention from EPA during the Mississippi flood of 1993, when eight million acres of pesticide-laden farmland were soaked in the Mississippi's waters. All told, an estimated 20 metric tons of alachlor were ultimately deposited into the Gulf of Mexico (USEPA 1993b).
The Most Polluted Communities in Pennsylvania
2 water utilities reported detecting Alachlor (Lasso) in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies
Ranked by highest average Alachlor (Lasso) level
|Rank||System||Population Served||Positive test results of total reported tests||Average Level|
|1||Keenhold Assoc Water Sys|
|40||1 of 1||2 ppb|
|2||Philadelphia Water Department|
|1,600,000||1 of 5||< 0.01 ppb|
(0 to 0.05 ppb)
Health Based Limits for Alachlor (Lasso)
|Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)||A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||0 ppb|
|One in one million (10-6) Cancer Risk||The concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||0.4 ppb|
|Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)||The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||2 ppb|
|California Public Health Goals||Defined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.||4 ppb|
|One in ten thousand (10-4) Cancer Risk||The concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 10,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||40 ppb|
|Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposure||Concentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||100 ppb|
|Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposure||Concentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||100 ppb|
|Drinking Water Equivalent Level||A lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||400 ppb|
Violation Summary for Alachlor (Lasso) in Pennsylvania
Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards in Pennsylvania since 2004
|Violation Type||Number of Violations|
|Failure to monitor regularly||103|