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National Drinking Water Database
Endrin in Kentucky
Endrin is a banned organochlorine insecticide that is persistent, bioaccumulative, acutely toxic to vertebrates and associated with massive deaths of fish, birds and other wildlife. [read more]
Endrin, along with DDT and PCBs, is one of 12 priority chemicals slated for world-wide phase-out under the Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) treaty because of its persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic properties. Endrin was formerly used as a pesticide for the production of cotton, sugarcane, tobacco, apples and grain. In 1985, registration of endrin was canceled for all uses except as a bird perch toxicant; that use was also canceled in 1991.
In the decades preceding its discontinuation, endrin was a widely used pesticide. For example, an estimated 5.1 to 9.9 million pounds were sold in the U.S. in 1962 alone. Although endrin is banned in the U.S., chemical manufacturers can still legally produce it for export. Production volumes are considered proprietary information, so no information is available on the production volume of this compound.
According to U.S. EPA drinking water contaminant fact sheets, short-term exposure to drinking water contaminated with endrin above the maximum contaminant level (MCL) can cause tremors, labored breathing, confusion and convulsions. Long-term exposure can cause convulsions and damage to liver tissue (USEPA 2002i).
One of the most sensitive markers of endrin toxicity in laboratory animals is the nervous system. Other effects include damage to the liver, immune system (spleen, thymus), kidney, heart, respiratory system and brain. Endrin also causes lung congestion and hemorrhaging, and thyroid and pituitary damage. High-dose exposure to endrin during fetal development results in birth defects such as fused ribs, cleft palates, skull defects, and open eyes. In pregnant rats, endrin causes delayed skeletal development and increased locomotor activity of the offspring (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) 1996a).
Endrin is both persistent in the environment and bioaccumulative; it can can build up in the environment, food chain, and people. After absorption, endrin tends to bioaccumulate in fat. Since endrin is no longer registered for use in the U.S., levels in the environment appear to be declining. However, due to its persistence, endrin residues still remain in some agricultural soils and in hazardous waste sites. Releases from these sites can continue to be sources of endrin exposure to humans (California Environmental Protection Agency 1999h).
The Most Polluted Communities in Kentucky
1 water utilities reported detecting Endrin in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies
Ranked by highest average Endrin level
|Rank||System||Population Served||Positive test results of total reported tests||Average Level|
|1||Bardstown Municipal Water Dept|
|34,650||1 of 7||< 0.01 ppb|
(0 to 0.01 ppb)
Health Based Limits for Endrin
|EPA Human Health Water Quality Criteria||Water quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||0.06 ppb|
|California Public Health Goals||Defined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.||1.8 ppb|
|Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)||The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||2 ppb|
|Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)||A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||2 ppb|
|Lifetime health-based limit, non-cancer risk||Concentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for a lifetime of exposure. The Lifetime health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is based on exposure for a a 70-kg adult consuming 2 liters of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||2 ppb|
|Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposure||Concentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||5 ppb|
|Drinking Water Equivalent Level||A lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||10 ppb|
|Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposure||Concentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.||20 ppb|
Violation Summary for Endrin in Kentucky
Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards in Kentucky since 2004
|Violation Type||Number of Violations|
|Failure to monitor regularly||11|