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National Drinking Water Database


Chromium (total) in Hawaii


Chromium is a metal that pollutes drinking water due to discharge from steel and pulp mills and erosion of natural deposits. [read more]

The Most Polluted Communities in Hawaii

42 water utilities reported detecting Chromium (total) in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Chromium (total) level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Kekaha-Waimea
Lihue, HI
5,1354 of 47.33 ppb
(4 to 11 ppb)
2Anahola
Lihue, HI
2,1741 of 17 ppb
(7 ppb)
3Hanapepe-Eleele
Lihue, HI
4,4304 of 46.75 ppb
(3 to 9 ppb)
4Haena-Wainiha
Lihue, HI
1,1202 of 26.33 ppb
(6.33 ppb)
5Pacific Missile Range Facility
Pearl Harbor, HI
1,2002 of 26 ppb
(6 ppb)
6Gay & Robinson
Kaumakani, HI
1,5002 of 25.5 ppb
(5 to 6 ppb)
7Waikoloa
Waikoloa, HI
12,1003 of 34.71 ppb
(4 to 6 ppb)
8Lalamilo
Hilo, HI
1,8106 of 64.63 ppb
(4 to 5 ppb)
9Princeville
Princeville, HI
1,6982 of 24.5 ppb
(4 to 5 ppb)
10Napu'u Water
Kailua-kona, HI
4682 of 23.25 ppb
(3 to 3.5 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Chromium (total)

StandardDescriptionLevel
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.100 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.100 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.100 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.1000 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.1000 ppb

Violation Summary for Chromium (total) in Hawaii

There are no violations reported for this contaminant in Hawaii