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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene is a synthetic chemical used as a solvent, refrigerant, and in the production of pharmaceuticals; it is released as pollutant from various industrial chemical factories.

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
20
-
-
Water utilities
56
-
-
People Served
2,186,351
-
-

Health Concerns for trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene:


trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene Exposure by State

Water utilities in 20 states have reported detecting trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene contamination
SystemsPopulation
North Carolina1409,542
Florida6337,744
Washington1305,000
California3246,826
New York4227,705
Illinois3167,695
Minnesota7165,250
Indiana273,131
New Jersey266,153
Nebraska245,000
Pennsylvania734,163
Ohio334,049
Wisconsin324,632
Connecticut117,078
Idaho110,500
Massachusetts19,800
Michigan17,520
New Mexico12,401
Virginia31,810
New Hampshire4352
Total562,186,351

The Most Polluted Communities

56 water utilities reported detecting trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Whitehall Twp Authority
Whitehall, PA
13,06320 of 221.98 ppb
(0 to 4.3 ppb)
2Jordan
Jordan, MN
5,0841 of 10.9 ppb
(0.9 ppb)
3Pawc Homesite
Wilkes-barre, PA
5521 of 210.6 ppb
(0.35 to 0.85 ppb)
4Mcconnellsburg Boro Muni Auth
Mcconnellsburg, PA
2,0002 of 50.56 ppb
(0 to 1.8 ppb)
5Bedford Hills/Taconic Corr. Facilities
Bedford Hills, NY
1,1001 of 10.5 ppb
(0.5 ppb)
6Valley Mills Crossing
Bedford, VA
501 of 30.47 ppb
(0 to 1.4 ppb)
7City of Raleigh Public Utilities Department
Raleigh, NC
409,5421 of 150.41 ppb
(0 to 6.2 ppb)
8Glenwood North
Hampstead, NH
501 of 60.4 ppb
(0 to 2.4 ppb)
9Milford
Milford, MI
7,5204 of 40.34 ppb
(0.27 to 0.4 ppb)
10City of Norfolk
Norfolk, NE
24,00033 of 650.33 ppb
(0 to 1.2 ppb)

Health Based Limits for trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene

StandardDescriptionLevel
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.100 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.100 ppb
Lifetime health-based limit, non-cancer riskConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for a lifetime of exposure. The Lifetime health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is based on exposure for a a 70-kg adult consuming 2 liters of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.100 ppb
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.140 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.700 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.1000 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.20000 ppb

Testing Summary for trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene

Are tests routinely required for trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene (2004-2009):33,953 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.6 per year

Violation Summary for trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations0
Monitoring Violations4,298
Reporting Violations0

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1987
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 1987
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis 1984
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1988

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at low doses RTECS®- Acute Toxicity Data 1990
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicity Klaassen, C, 1996
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at low doses RTECS®- Acute Toxicity Data 1990

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
nervous system - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study National Library of Medicine HazMap

Miscellaneous

Type of concern: Reference:
Occupational hazards related to handling European Union - Classification & Labelling

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & Labelling1,2-DICHLOROETHYLENE; [1] ; CIS-DICHLOROETHYLENE; [2] ; TRANS-DICHLOROETHYLENE [3]•Highly flammable
•Highly flammable
•Harmful
•Harmful by inhalation
•Harmful to aquatic organisms
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants1,2-TRANS-DICHLOROETHYLENE•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListETHENE, 1,2-DICHLORO-, (E)-•This chemical was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical was flagged for suspected persistence.
National Library of Medicine HazMap1,2-DICHLOROETHYLENE, ALL ISOMERS•Hepatotoxin: Hepatotoxin, Secondary;
•Neurotoxin: CNS Solvent Syndrome;
•PEL (OSHA) - Permissible exposure limit (OSHA): 200 ppm;
•LC50 - Lethal concentration in 50% of animals tested: 130338 ppm, trans isomer, 32000 ppm, cis isomer;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 200 ppm;
•Flammability (NFPA) - NFPA flammability code: 0 = will not burn; 1 = must be preheated; 2 = high ambient temp required; 3 = may ignite at ambient temp; 4 = burn readily: 3: may ignite at ambient temperature;
•IDLH (NIOSH) - Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health: 1000 ppm;
•Odor Threshold High - The lowest concentration at which a substance can be detected or recognized using the sense of smell: 17 ppm;
•Odor Threshold Low - The lowest concentration at which a substance can be detected or recognized using the sense of smell: 0.08 ppm;
•MAK - Maximum Allowable Concentration (Federal Republic of Germany): 200 ppm;
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 20041,2-TRANS-DICHLOROETHYLENE•Gastrointestinal or liver toxicity hazards: suspected
Klaassen, C, 19961,2-TRANS-DICHLOROETHYLENE•Cardiovascular or blood toxicity hazards: suspected
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007ETHYLENE, 1,2-DICHLORO-, (E)-• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- Acute Toxicity Data 1990ETHYLENE, 1,2-DICHLORO-, (E)-• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1987ETHYLENE, 1,2-DICHLORO-, (E)-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction (hamster lng)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1988ETHYLENE, 1,2-DICHLORO-, (E)-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (Saccharomyces cerevisiae )
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction (Saccharomyces cerevisiae )
RTECS®- Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis 1984ETHYLENE, 1,2-DICHLORO-, (E)-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Gene Conversion and Mitotic Recombination (Saccharomyces cerevisiae )
RTECS®- Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 1987ETHYLENE, 1,2-DICHLORO-, (E)-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationKlaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- Acute Toxicity Data 1990RTECS®- Acute Toxicity Data. Journal of the American College of Toxicology, Part B. (Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., 1651 Third Ave., New York, NY 10128) V.1- 1,11,1990
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1987RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 182,135,1987
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1988RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 206,209,1988
RTECS®- Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis 1984RTECS®- Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 4,365,1984
RTECS®- Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 1987RTECS®- Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry. (Gordon & Breach Science Pub. Inc., 1 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016) V.3(3/4)- 15,101,1987

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