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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

para-para DDE


Status: Unregulated - EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

para-para DDE is a metabolite of DDT, a toxic and persistent insecticide banned in the U.S. and most other countries.

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
1
1
-
Water utilities
2
1
-
People Served
201,075
75
-

Health Concerns for para-para DDE:


para-para DDE Exposure by State

Water utilities in 1 states have reported detecting para-para DDE in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with para-para DDE contaminationWater suppliers reporting para-para DDE above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
Delaware2201,075175
Total2201,075175

The Most Polluted Communities

2 water utilities reported detecting para-para DDE in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average para-para DDE level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Autumn Woods Mobile Home Park
Wyoming, DE
751 of 10.3 ppb
(0.3 ppb)
2Artesian Water Company
Newark, DE
201,0001 of 68< 0.01 ppb
(0 to 0.02 ppb)

Health Based Limits for para-para DDE

StandardDescriptionLevel
Health-Based Screening LevelA benchmark concentration of contaminants in water that may be of potential concern for human health, if exceeded. For noncarcinogens, the HBSL represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse effects over a lifetime of exposure. For carcinogens, the HBSL range represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that corresponds to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 chance in 1 million to 1 chance in 10 thousand. Source: U.S. Geological Survey.0.1 ppb-10 ppb

Testing Summary for para-para DDE

Are tests routinely required for para-para DDE by federal law?No
Water suppliers reporting tests for para-para DDE (2004-2009):613 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.3 per year

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Possible human carcinogen California EPA Proposition 65
Cancer - strong evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Personal Communication from J 1982
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- "Insecticide Biochemistry and Physiology," Wilkinson, C 1976
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1975
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1977
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1988
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1987
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1984
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2005
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1985
One or more in vitro tests on microorganisms show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2008

Endocrine disruption

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of endocrine disruption Brucker-Davis, F, 1998
endocrine - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System
endocrine - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study Our Stolen Future Endocrine Disruptors

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Wildlife and environmental toxicity Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsDDE•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine SystemDDE•EPA: known endocrine disruptor
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)P,P'-DICHLORODIPHENYLDICHLOROETHYLENE (DDE)•Group B2: Probable human carcinogen - sufficient data in animals (EPA classification)
Our Stolen Future Endocrine DisruptorsDDT METABOLITE, P,P'-DDE
California EPA Proposition 65DDE (DICHLORODIPHENYL-DICHLOROETHYLENE)•Carcinogen: California Proposition 65
Brucker-Davis, F, 1998DDE•Endocrine toxicity hazards: suspected
Proposition 65 List of CarcinogensDDE•Cancer hazards: recognized
RTECS®- "Insecticide Biochemistry and Physiology," Wilkinson, C 1976ETHYLENE, 1,1-DICHLORO-2,2-BIS(P-CHLOROPHENYL)-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (rat oth)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1987ETHYLENE, 1,1-DICHLORO-2,2-BIS(P-CHLOROPHENYL)-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1988ETHYLENE, 1,1-DICHLORO-2,2-BIS(P-CHLOROPHENYL)-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells (mouse lym)
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1985ETHYLENE, 1,1-DICHLORO-2,2-BIS(P-CHLOROPHENYL)-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction (Drosophila melanogaster orl)
RTECS®- Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1975ETHYLENE, 1,1-DICHLORO-2,2-BIS(P-CHLOROPHENYL)-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (mouse emb)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1984ETHYLENE, 1,1-DICHLORO-2,2-BIS(P-CHLOROPHENYL)-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995ETHYLENE, 1,1-DICHLORO-2,2-BIS(P-CHLOROPHENYL)-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1977ETHYLENE, 1,1-DICHLORO-2,2-BIS(P-CHLOROPHENYL)-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Inhibition (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2005ETHYLENE, 1,1-DICHLORO-2,2-BIS(P-CHLOROPHENYL)-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human mmr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2008ETHYLENE, 1,1-DICHLORO-2,2-BIS(P-CHLOROPHENYL)-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (non-mammalian species mul)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (non-mammalian species mul)
RTECS®- Personal Communication from J 1982ETHYLENE, 1,1-DICHLORO-2,2-BIS(P-CHLOROPHENYL)-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (rat lvr)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine SystemIllinois EPA (Illinois Environmental Protection Agency). 2000. Preliminary list of chemicals associated with endocrine system effects in animals and humans (*) or in vitro (+). In EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) 2000. Handbook for Non-Cancer Health Effects Valuation, Appendix C.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
Our Stolen Future Endocrine DisruptorsColborn T, D Dumanoski, JP Myers. 2006. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. Updated from original listing in "Our Stolen Future" (1996).
California EPA Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationBrucker-Davis, F. Effects of Environmental Synthetic Chemicals on Thyroid Function. Thyroid. 8(9): 827-856. 1998., Guillette, L. J., and E. Guillette. Environmental Contaminants and Reproductive Abnormalities in Wildlife: Implications for Public Health? Toxicology and Industrial Health. 12(3): 537-550. 1996., Illinois EPA. Endocrine Disruptors Strategy. 1997. (Table 1: Preliminary List of Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System Effects in Animals and Humans or In Vitro). http://www.nihs.go.jp/hse/environ/illiepatable.htm, Japanese National Institute of Health Sciences. Lists of Paradigmatic Chemicals. http://www.nihs.go.jp/hse/endocrine-e/paradigm/paradigm.html, Keith, L.H. (ed.). Environmental Endocrine Disruptors. John Wiley & Sons, NY. 1997. http://www.wileyeurope.com/cda/product/0,,0471191450%7Cdesc%7C3037,00.html, World Wildlife Fund. Our Stolen Future. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Basics/chemlist.htm. The WWF list is derived from references detailed at http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Sources/chemsources.htm and was originally published in: Colborn, T., F.S. vom Saal, and A.M. Soto. Developmental Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals In Wildlife and Humans. Environmental Health Perspectives 101(5): 378-384. 1993.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
RTECS®- "Insecticide Biochemistry and Physiology," Wilkinson, C 1976RTECS®- "Insecticide Biochemistry and Physiology," Wilkinson, C.F., ed., New York, Plenum Pub. Corp., 1976 -,555,1976
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1987RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 10(Suppl 10),1,1987
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1988RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 12,85,1988
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1985RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis. (New York, NY) V.1-9, 1979-87. For publisher information, see EMMUEG. 7,325,1985
RTECS®- Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1975RTECS®- Journal of the National Cancer Institute. (Washington, DC) V.1-60, 1940-78. For publisher information, see JJIND8. 54,981,1975
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1984RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 136,137,1984
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 343,157,1995
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1977RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 46,305,1977
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2005RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 588,47,2005
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2008RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 649,135,2008
RTECS®- Personal Communication from J 1982RTECS®- Personal Communication from J.F. Sina, Merck Institute for Therapeutic Research, West Point, PA 19486, Oct. 26, 1982 26OCT1982

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