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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

o-Xylene


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

o-Xylene is a petroleum-derived solvent used in the printing, rubber, and leather industries; it is also used as a cleaning agent, a thinner for paint, and an ingredient in paints and varnishes.

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
24
-
-
Water utilities
712
-
-
People Served
10,033,503
-
-

Health Concerns for o-Xylene:


o-Xylene Exposure by State

Water utilities in 24 states have reported detecting o-Xylene in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with o-Xylene contamination
SystemsPopulation
Texas2214,780,462
California251,655,429
Minnesota1991,446,872
Nebraska19568,598
New York47381,955
Missouri73277,993
Delaware17254,629
New Jersey18247,534
Rhode Island299,299
Washington1478,244
New Mexico457,811
Wisconsin1954,614
Hawaii252,106
Michigan731,033
Maryland1718,946
Alaska314,865
New Hampshire74,864
Maine23,030
South Dakota31,833
Virginia51,154
Vermont1760
Montana3625
Ohio2609
Nevada2238
Total71210,033,503

The Most Polluted Communities

712 water utilities reported detecting o-Xylene in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average o-Xylene level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Eol Wsc
Axtell, TX
1,6321 of 123.5 ppb
(23.5 ppb)
2Country Meadows
Glen Rose, TX
1201 of 119.19 ppb
(19.19 ppb)
3Cooper County Pwsd #3
Blackwater, MO
1601 of 110.05 ppb
(10.05 ppb)
4Nsbu - Nuiqsut
Barrow, AK
4331 of 19.68 ppb
(9.68 ppb)
5Oak Leaf Trail
Keene, TX
661 of 19.6 ppb
(9.6 ppb)
6Iona
Iona, MN
1611 of 18.6 ppb
(8.6 ppb)
7Marietta
Marietta, MN
1741 of 16.3 ppb
(6.3 ppb)
8Csa 42 Oro Grande
Victorville, CA
7001 of 46.25 ppb
(0 to 25 ppb)
9Duval County Conservation & Reclamation District B
Benavides, TX
1,9781 of 25.65 ppb
(0 to 11.3 ppb)
10Grand Meadow
Grand Meadow, MN
9453 of 45.33 ppb
(0 to 13 ppb)

Health Based Limits for o-Xylene

StandardDescriptionLevel
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.10000 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.10000 ppb

Testing Summary for o-Xylene

Are tests routinely required for o-Xylene by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for o-Xylene (2004-2009):15,230 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.6 per year

Violation Summary for o-Xylene

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for o-Xylene since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations2
Monitoring Violations255
Reporting Violations0

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Strong evidence of human neurotoxicity Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans
Limited evidence of nervous system toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
nervous system - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study National Library of Medicine HazMap

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
Possible human cardiovascular toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Possible human sense organ toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Possible human musculoskeletal toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Classified as toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
Limited evidence of kidney toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 1991
One or more animal studies show effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide Ingredients
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
reproductive - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study National Library of Medicine HazMap
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as a low human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies nternational Programme of Chemical Safety Environmental Health Criteria 180, 1996

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Human nervous system toxicant - moderate evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Human developmental toxicant - moderate evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Human reproductive toxicant - moderate evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Human nervous system toxicant - moderate evidence Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity US EPA, 9204
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity US EPA, 9204

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,281,1971
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Cancer - limited evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
Classified as irritant European Union - Classification & Labelling

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be persistent Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Miscellaneous

Type of concern: Reference:
Occupational hazards related to handling European Union - Classification & Labelling

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingO-XYLENE; [1] ; P-XYLENE; [2] ; M-XYLENE; [3] ; XYLENE [4]•Flammable
•Harmful
•Harmful by inhalation and in contact with skin
•Irritant (eyes, skin, or lungs)
•Irritating to skin
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListBENZENE, 1,2-DIMETHYL-•This chemical was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical was flagged for as a low human health priority.
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsO-XYLENES•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMapXYLENE ISOMERS•Reproductive Toxin - A chemical that is toxic to the reproductive system, including defects in the progeny and injury to male and female reproductive function: Yes;
•Hepatotoxin: Hepatotoxin, Secondary;
•Neurotoxin: CNS Solvent Syndrome;
•PEL (OSHA) - Permissible exposure limit (OSHA): 100 ppm;
•STEL (ACGIH) - Short-term exposure limits (ACGIH): 150 ppm;
•RD50 - Concentration producing a 50% decrease in respiratory rate in experimental animals following a 10-minute exposure: 1467 ppm;
•LC50 - Lethal concentration in 50% of animals tested: 16000 ppm;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 100 ppm;
•BEI - Biological Exposure Indices (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygiene, ACGIH): Methylhippuric acids in urine = 1.5 g/g creatinine; end of shift;;
•Flammability (NFPA) - NFPA flammability code: 0 = will not burn; 1 = must be preheated; 2 = high ambient temp required; 3 = may ignite at ambient temp; 4 = burn readily: 3: may ignite at ambient temperature;
•IDLH (NIOSH) - Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health: 900 ppm;O
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsXYLENE•Pesticide inerts: potentially toxic, testing priority, according to EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs1,2DIMETHYLBENZENE•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support CenterO-XYLENE•Cardiovascular or blood toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support CenterO-XYLENE•Gastrointestinal or liver toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support CenterO-XYLENE•Kidney toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support CenterO-XYLENE•Skin or sense organ toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 1991O-XYLENE•Respiratory toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, 9204O-XYLENE•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, 9204O-XYLENE•Developmental toxicity hazards: suspected
nternational Programme of Chemical Safety Environmental Health Criteria 180, 1996O-XYLENE•Immunotoxicity hazards: suspected
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007ORTHO-XYLENE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,281,1971ORTHO-XYLENE• occupationally related - MSHA STANDARD-air (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994ORTHO-XYLENE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Construc) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994ORTHO-XYLENE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Fed Cont) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994ORTHO-XYLENE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Gen Indu) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993ORTHO-XYLENE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Shipyard) (human TWA)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1987 & 2005. Office of Pesticide Programs. Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients in Pesticide Products - Categorized List of Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, Lu, F.C. Basic Toxicology. 2nd Edition. 1991., California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA. Roadmaps to Sources of Information on Chemicals Listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-to-Know Act (Also Known as SARA Title 3), Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory (for Microcomputers). (Report Number EPADFDK92040). 1991. Data file distributed in 2 diskettes by Office of Pollution, Prevention, and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. NOTE: Datasource no longer being maintained by EPA; not currently available online.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA. Roadmaps to Sources of Information on Chemicals Listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-to-Know Act (Also Known as SARA Title 3), Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory (for Microcomputers). (Report Number EPADFDK92040). 1991. Data file distributed in 2 diskettes by Office of Pollution, Prevention, and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. NOTE: Datasource no longer being maintained by EPA; not currently available online., Jankovic, J. A Screening Method for Occupational Reproductive Health Risk. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. 57: 641-649. 1996.
Scorecard.org Toxicity Informationnternational Programme of Chemical Safety Environmental Health Criteria 180. Principles and Methods for Assessing Direct Immunotoxicity Associated with Exposure to Chemicals. World Health Organization. Geneva, 1996. (Table 1: Examples of compounds that are immunotoxic for humans or rodents).
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,281,1971RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,281,1971
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926.55,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204.50,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910.1000,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915.1000,1993

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