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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

o-Dichlorobenzene


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

o-Dichlorobenzene (1,2-Dichlorobenzene) is an intermediate for making herbicides; it is discharged as a pollutant from the manufacture of agricultural chemicals. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
19
-
-
Water utilities
42
-
-
People Served
841,432
-
-

Health Concerns for o-Dichlorobenzene:


o-Dichlorobenzene Exposure by State

Water utilities in 19 states have reported detecting o-Dichlorobenzene in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with o-Dichlorobenzene contamination
SystemsPopulation
California7645,738
Florida4108,090
New Hampshire433,490
New Jersey219,453
Massachusetts28,956
New York67,138
Alaska15,000
Minnesota23,129
Missouri12,779
New Mexico12,401
Pennsylvania22,085
Virginia21,771
Wisconsin2755
Wyoming1254
Vermont1126
Indiana195
North Carolina185
Texas160
Connecticut127
Total42841,432

The Most Polluted Communities

42 water utilities reported detecting o-Dichlorobenzene in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average o-Dichlorobenzene level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Camarillo Water Dept
Camarillo,, CA
40,3802 of 45.04 ppb
(0 to 10.6 ppb)
2Coburn Mhp
Clarendon, VT
1264 of 61.27 ppb
(0 to 2 ppb)
320 Station Road - Apt Building
Brookfield, CT
271 of 11 ppb
(1 ppb)
4Wappingers Falls Mobile Home P
Wappingers Falls, NY
1151 of 10.9 ppb
(0.9 ppb)
5Charlton Housing Authority
Charlton, MA
504 of 40.72 ppb
(0.54 to 0.88 ppb)
6Mcconnellsburg Boro Muni Auth
Mcconnellsburg, PA
2,0002 of 50.56 ppb
(0 to 1.8 ppb)
7Bedford Hills/Taconic Corr. Facilities
Bedford Hills, NY
1,1001 of 10.5 ppb
(0.5 ppb)
8Country Squire Mhp 1
Lubbock, TX
602 of 30.49 ppb
(0 to 0.76 ppb)
9Avoca Waterworks
Avoca, WI
6233 of 80.48 ppb
(0 to 2.7 ppb)
10Aquarion Water Company: Millbury
Millbury, MA
8,9061 of 30.32 ppb
(0 to 0.97 ppb)

Health Based Limits for o-Dichlorobenzene

StandardDescriptionLevel
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.420 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.600 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.600 ppb
California Public Health GoalsDefined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.600 ppb
Lifetime health-based limit, non-cancer riskConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for a lifetime of exposure. The Lifetime health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is based on exposure for a a 70-kg adult consuming 2 liters of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.600 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.3000 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.9000 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.9000 ppb

Testing Summary for o-Dichlorobenzene

Are tests routinely required for o-Dichlorobenzene by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for o-Dichlorobenzene (2004-2009):33,957 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.6 per year

Violation Summary for o-Dichlorobenzene

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for o-Dichlorobenzene since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations0
Monitoring Violations4,292
Reporting Violations0

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human immune system toxicant or allergen National Library of Medicine HazMap

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
One or more animal studies show effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide Ingredients
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- AMA Archives of Industrial Health 1958

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Journal of the American College of Toxicology 1985
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutagenesis 1987
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Science 1987
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2006
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1998
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
Classified as irritant European Union - Classification & Labelling

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Suspected to be an environmental toxin and be persistent or bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
nervous system - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study National Library of Medicine HazMap



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & Labelling1,2-DICHLOROBENZENE•Harmful
•Harmful if swallowed
•Irritant (eyes, skin, or lungs)
•Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin
•Dangerous for the environment
•Very toxic to aquatic organisms
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants1,2-DICHLOROBENZENE•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListBENZENE, 1,2-DICHLORO-•This chemical was flagged for further attention by CEPA due to suspected aquatic toxicity and persistence.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)1,2-DICHLOROBENZENE•Group D: Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity (EPA classification)
National Library of Medicine HazMapO-DICHLOROBENZENE•Skin Sensitizer - An agent that can induce an allergic reaction in the skin or lungs: Yes;
•Hepatotoxin: Hepatotoxin, Secondary;
•Neurotoxin: CNS Solvent Syndrome;
•STEL (ACGIH) - Short-term exposure limits (ACGIH): 50 ppm;
•RD50 - Concentration producing a 50% decrease in respiratory rate in experimental animals following a 10-minute exposure: 182 ppm;
•LC50 - Lethal concentration in 50% of animals tested: 1970 ppm;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 25 ppm;
•Flammability (NFPA) - NFPA flammability code: 0 = will not burn; 1 = must be preheated; 2 = high ambient temp required; 3 = may ignite at ambient temp; 4 = burn readily: 2: high ambient temperature required;
•IDLH (NIOSH) - Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health: 200 ppm;
•Odor Threshold High - The lowest concentration at which a substance can be detected or recognized using the sense of smell: 50 ppm;
•Odor Threshold Low - The lowest concentration at which a substance can be detected or recognized using the sense of smell: 0.02 ppm;
•MAK - Maximum Allowable Concentration (Federal Republic of Germany): 10 ppm;
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensORTHO-DICHLOROBENZENE•IARC Group 3 (no cancer link)
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsO-DICHLOROBENZENE•Pesticide inerts: potentially toxic, testing priority, according to EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs1,2DICHLOROBENZENE•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,20071,2-DICHLOROBENZENE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- AMA Archives of Industrial Health 19581,2-DICHLOROBENZENE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Journal of the American College of Toxicology 19851,2-DICHLOROBENZENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: sperm (rat ipr)
RTECS®- Mutagenesis 19871,2-DICHLOROBENZENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 19981,2-DICHLOROBENZENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Gene Conversion and Mitotic Recombination (Saccharomyces cerevisiae )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 20061,2-DICHLOROBENZENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: (mouse ihl)
RTECS®- Science 19871,2-DICHLOROBENZENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (mouse lym)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (hamster ovr)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1987 & 2005. Office of Pesticide Programs. Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients in Pesticide Products - Categorized List of Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- AMA Archives of Industrial Health 1958RTECS®- AMA Archives of Industrial Health. (Chicago, IL) V.11-21, 1955-60. For publisher information, see AEHLAU. 17,180,1958
RTECS®- Journal of the American College of Toxicology 1985RTECS®- Journal of the American College of Toxicology. (Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., 1651 Third Ave., New York, NY 10128) V.1-12, 1982-1993. Discontinued. 4(2),224,1985
RTECS®- Mutagenesis 1987RTECS®- Mutagenesis. (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 2,111,1987
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1998RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 413,205,1998
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2006RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 608,29,2006
RTECS®- Science 1987RTECS®- Science. (American Assoc. for the Advancement of Science, 1333 H St., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 236,933,1987

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