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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

n-Hexane


Status: Unregulated - EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

n-Hexane is a solvent used to extract oil from vegetables, a cleaning agent in printing, textile, furniture, and shoe industries, a component of gasoline, and a chemical in craft supplies such as quick-drying glue and rubber cement.

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
1
-
-
Water utilities
3
-
-
People Served
361
-
-

Health Concerns for n-Hexane:


n-Hexane Exposure by State

Water utilities in 1 states have reported detecting n-Hexane in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with n-Hexane contamination
SystemsPopulation
Texas3361
Total3361

The Most Polluted Communities

3 water utilities reported detecting n-Hexane in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average n-Hexane level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Mesa Grande Wsc
Weatherford, TX
3511 of 15.09 ppb
(5.09 ppb)
2Bluff Dale Wsc
Bluff Dale, TX
12 of 22.75 ppb
(1.69 to 3.8 ppb)
3B F E Water Co
Weatherford, TX
91 of 10.53 ppb
(0.53 ppb)

Health Based Limits for n-Hexane

StandardDescriptionLevel
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.4000 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.10000 ppb

Testing Summary for n-Hexane

Are tests routinely required for n-Hexane by federal law?No
Water suppliers reporting tests for n-Hexane (2004-2009):80 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):1.2 per year

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Strong evidence of human neurotoxicity Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans
Moderate evidence of human neurotoxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
Classified as a high human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at low doses EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide Ingredients
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1980

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Human nervous system toxicant - moderate evidence Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans
Possible human reproductive or developmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,126,1971
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
Single case study detailing occupational hazards Frazier , L, 1998

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 1984
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis 2000
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1994

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Miscellaneous

Type of concern: Reference:
Occupational hazards related to handling European Union - Classification & Labelling

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be persistent Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Multiple, additive exposure sources

Type of concern: Reference:
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food FDA Food Additive Status
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food FDA Everything Added to Food



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingN-HEXANE•Highly flammable
•Highly flammable
•Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity
•Possible risk of impaired fertility
•Harmful
•Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation
•Toxic to aquatic organisms
FDA Food Additive StatusHEXANE• Food additive: solvent
• Food additive: food additive for which a petition has been filed and a regulation issued
• 25 parts per million as residue - In spice oleoresins (173.270)
• 2.2% by weight - As residue in hops extract
• extract added before or during cooking of beer -173.270
• miscellaneous
• Food additive: food additive for which a petition has been filed and a regulation issued
• 25 parts per million - In modified hop extract for beer - CFR172.560
• miscellaneous
• Food additive: food additive for which a petition has been filed and a regulation issued
• 5 parts per million as residue
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsHEXANE• S
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsHEXANE• S
FDA Everything Added to FoodHEXANE• Fully up-to-date toxicology information has been sought.
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListHEXANE•This chemical was deemed a high human health priority and was flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical is suspected to be a developmental and reproductive toxin and suspected of aquatic toxicity.
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsHEXANE•Prohibited in EU cosmetics: must not form part of the composition of cosmetic products
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsHEXANE•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMapN-HEXANE•Skin Designation (ACGIH) - Danger of cutaneous absorption (ACGIH): Yes;
•Neurotoxin: Motor Neuropathy;
•PEL (OSHA) - Permissible exposure limit (OSHA): 500 ppm;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 50 ppm;
•BEI - Biological Exposure Indices (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygiene, ACGIH): 2,5-Hexanedione (free) in urine = 0.4 mg/L end of shift at end of workweek;;
•Flammability (NFPA) - NFPA flammability code: 0 = will not burn; 1 = must be preheated; 2 = high ambient temp required; 3 = may ignite at ambient temp; 4 = burn readily: 3: may ignite at ambient temperature;
•IDLH (NIOSH) - Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health: 1100 ppm;
•Odor Threshold High - The lowest concentration at which a substance can be detected or recognized using the sense of smell: 248 ppm;
•Odor Threshold Low - The lowest concentration at which a substance can be detected or recognized using the sense of smell: 65 ppm;
•MAK - Maximum Allowable Concentration (Federal Republic of Germany): 50 ppm;
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsHEXANE•Pesticide inerts of toxicological concern according to EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsHEXANE•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
Frazier , L, 1998N-HEXANE•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005HEXANE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006HEXANE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007HEXANE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 1984HEXANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster fbr)
RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 1984HEXANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster fbr)
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,126,1971HEXANE• occupationally related - MSHA STANDARD-air (human TWA)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1994HEXANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction (Saccharomyces cerevisiae )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1994HEXANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction (Saccharomyces cerevisiae )
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994HEXANE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Construc) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994HEXANE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Fed Cont) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994HEXANE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Gen Indu) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993HEXANE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Shipyard) (human TWA)
RTECS®- Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis 2000HEXANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (rat scu)
RTECS®- Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis 2000HEXANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (rat scu)
RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1980HEXANE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1980HEXANE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
FDA Food Additive StatusFDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
FDA Everything Added to FoodFDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsEC (European Commission of the European Union). 1999-2006. Enterprise Directorate-General Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetics. The rules governing cosmetic products in the European Union, Volume 1, "Cosmetics legislation."
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1987 & 2005. Office of Pesticide Programs. Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients in Pesticide Products - Categorized List of Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationFrazier , L. and M. L. Hage (eds.). Reproductive Hazards of the Workplace, Wiley Europe, 1998. Table 10 (Partial List of Reproductive Toxicants) available at http://www.pharmacy.ohio-state.edu/homepage/safety/chemhygiene_table_repro.pdf.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 1984RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 22,623,1984
RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 1984RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 1982- 22,623,1984
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,126,1971RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,126,1971
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1994RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 341,83,1994
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1994RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- -1964 341,83,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926.55,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204.50,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910.1000,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915.1000,1993
RTECS®- Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis 2000RTECS®- Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1980- 20,329,2000
RTECS®- Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis 2000RTECS®- Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 20,329,2000
RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1980RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959- 55,501,1980
RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1980RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 55,501,1980

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