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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

m-Xylene


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

m-Xylene is a petroleum-derived solvent used in the printing, rubber, and leather industries; it is also used as a cleaning agent, a thinner for paint, and an ingredient in paints and varnishes.

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
7
-
-
Water utilities
91
-
-
People Served
1,126,567
-
-

Health Concerns for m-Xylene:


m-Xylene Exposure by State

Water utilities in 7 states have reported detecting m-Xylene in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with m-Xylene contamination
SystemsPopulation
Nebraska17539,358
New Jersey20297,378
New York44199,000
New Mexico560,631
Hawaii127,642
South Dakota31,833
Maryland1725
Total911,126,567

The Most Polluted Communities

91 water utilities reported detecting m-Xylene in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average m-Xylene level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Owego W D NO 2
Apalachin, NY
2,7545 of 79.61 ppb
(0 to 24 ppb)
2Makawao
Wailuku, HI
27,6422 of 44.51 ppb
(0 to 11 ppb)
3Marlboro State Hospital
Marlboro Twp, NJ
2801 of 14.1 ppb
(4.1 ppb)
4Sarpy Co. Sid #23
Omaha, NE
1,0001 of 13.9 ppb
(3.9 ppb)
5Hounsfield WD 2
Sackets Harbor, NY
50015 of 193.62 ppb
(0 to 7.4 ppb)
6Village of Shubert
Shubert, NE
2401 of 33.07 ppb
(0 to 9.2 ppb)
7City of Osmond
Osmond, NE
7964 of 82.59 ppb
(0 to 9.1 ppb)
8Clay Rws/South Union
Jefferson, SD
9052 of 51.86 ppb
(0 to 5.48 ppb)
9Manchester Water District
NY
5501 of 21.75 ppb
(0 to 3.5 ppb)
10Ennis Parc
Pleasant Valley, NY
1751 of 11.4 ppb
(1.4 ppb)

Health Based Limits for m-Xylene

StandardDescriptionLevel
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.10000 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.10000 ppb

Testing Summary for m-Xylene

Are tests routinely required for m-Xylene by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for m-Xylene (2004-2009):6,029 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.5 per year

Violation Summary for m-Xylene

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for m-Xylene since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations1
Monitoring Violations259
Reporting Violations0

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Strong evidence of human neurotoxicity Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans
Limited evidence of nervous system toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
nervous system - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study National Library of Medicine HazMap

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
Possible human cardiovascular toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Possible human sense organ toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Possible human musculoskeletal toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at very low doses RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986
Classified as toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
Limited evidence of kidney toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 1991
One or more animal studies show effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide Ingredients
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
reproductive - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study National Library of Medicine HazMap
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as a low human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies nternational Programme of Chemical Safety Environmental Health Criteria 180, 1996

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Human nervous system toxicant - moderate evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Human developmental toxicant - moderate evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Human reproductive toxicant - moderate evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Human nervous system toxicant - moderate evidence Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity US EPA, 9204

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,281,1971
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Cancer - limited evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 2004

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
Classified as irritant European Union - Classification & Labelling
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at very low doses RTECS®- American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 1962
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at low doses RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at high doses RTECS®- Toxicologist 2003

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be persistent Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Miscellaneous

Type of concern: Reference:
Occupational hazards related to handling European Union - Classification & Labelling

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingO-XYLENE; [1] ; P-XYLENE; [2] ; M-XYLENE; [3] ; XYLENE [4]•Flammable
•Harmful
•Harmful by inhalation and in contact with skin
•Irritant (eyes, skin, or lungs)
•Irritating to skin
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListBENZENE, 1,3-DIMETHYL-•This chemical was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical was flagged for as a low human health priority.
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsM-XYLENES•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMapXYLENE ISOMERS•Reproductive Toxin - A chemical that is toxic to the reproductive system, including defects in the progeny and injury to male and female reproductive function: Yes;
•Hepatotoxin: Hepatotoxin, Secondary;
•Neurotoxin: CNS Solvent Syndrome;
•PEL (OSHA) - Permissible exposure limit (OSHA): 100 ppm;
•STEL (ACGIH) - Short-term exposure limits (ACGIH): 150 ppm;
•RD50 - Concentration producing a 50% decrease in respiratory rate in experimental animals following a 10-minute exposure: 1467 ppm;
•LC50 - Lethal concentration in 50% of animals tested: 16000 ppm;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 100 ppm;
•BEI - Biological Exposure Indices (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygiene, ACGIH): Methylhippuric acids in urine = 1.5 g/g creatinine; end of shift;;
•Flammability (NFPA) - NFPA flammability code: 0 = will not burn; 1 = must be preheated; 2 = high ambient temp required; 3 = may ignite at ambient temp; 4 = burn readily: 3: may ignite at ambient temperature;
•IDLH (NIOSH) - Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health: 900 ppm;O
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsXYLENE•Pesticide inerts: potentially toxic, testing priority, according to EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs1,3DIMETHYLBENZENE•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004M-XYLENE•Gastrointestinal or liver toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support CenterM-XYLENE•Cardiovascular or blood toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support CenterM-XYLENE•Kidney toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support CenterM-XYLENE•Skin or sense organ toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 1991M-XYLENE•Respiratory toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, 9204M-XYLENE•Developmental toxicity hazards: suspected
nternational Programme of Chemical Safety Environmental Health Criteria 180, 1996M-XYLENE•Immunotoxicity hazards: suspected
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007M-XYLENE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986M-XYLENE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 1962M-XYLENE• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,281,1971M-XYLENE• occupationally related - MSHA STANDARD-air (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994M-XYLENE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Construc) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994M-XYLENE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Fed Cont) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994M-XYLENE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Gen Indu) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993M-XYLENE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Shipyard) (human TWA)
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2003M-XYLENE• skin - Primary skin irritant (rat )
RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 2004M-XYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human fbr)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1987 & 2005. Office of Pesticide Programs. Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients in Pesticide Products - Categorized List of Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, Lu, F.C. Basic Toxicology. 2nd Edition. 1991., California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA. Roadmaps to Sources of Information on Chemicals Listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-to-Know Act (Also Known as SARA Title 3), Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory (for Microcomputers). (Report Number EPADFDK92040). 1991. Data file distributed in 2 diskettes by Office of Pollution, Prevention, and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. NOTE: Datasource no longer being maintained by EPA; not currently available online., Jankovic, J. A Screening Method for Occupational Reproductive Health Risk. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. 57: 641-649. 1996.
Scorecard.org Toxicity Informationnternational Programme of Chemical Safety Environmental Health Criteria 180. Principles and Methods for Assessing Direct Immunotoxicity Associated with Exposure to Chemicals. World Health Organization. Geneva, 1996. (Table 1: Examples of compounds that are immunotoxic for humans or rodents).
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J., Prague, Czechoslovakia, Avicenum, 1986 -,30,1986
RTECS®- American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 1962RTECS®- American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. (AIHA, 475 Wolf Ledges Pkwy., Akron, OH 44311) V.19- 23,95,1962
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,281,1971RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,281,1971
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926.55,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204.50,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910.1000,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915.1000,1993
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2003RTECS®- Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981- 72,379,2003
RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 2004RTECS®- Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 147,35,2004

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