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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene is a pollutant discharged by various industrial chemical factories from the manufacture of plastic wrap, adhesives and synthetic fiber. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
31
-
-
Water utilities
340
-
-
People Served
11,507,860
-
-

Health Concerns for cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene:


cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene Exposure by State

Water utilities in 31 states have reported detecting cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene contamination
SystemsPopulation
California341,827,241
Florida261,816,601
New York331,242,606
Pennsylvania371,241,504
Indiana91,087,495
New Jersey32936,714
Illinois25694,258
Wisconsin21376,454
Ohio20355,252
Washington3353,261
Alabama5337,342
Massachusetts14277,821
Minnesota11262,694
Delaware4210,791
Iowa6109,114
Nebraska571,810
Connecticut758,662
Michigan353,580
Maryland446,190
Arizona346,142
Arkansas222,897
Missouri421,807
New Hampshire1012,963
New Mexico211,107
Virginia68,825
Oklahoma27,149
North Carolina86,495
Alaska16,429
Vermont14,500
Oregon1100
Texas156
Total34011,507,860

The Most Polluted Communities

340 water utilities reported detecting cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1CTWC - Shoreline Region-Latimer Point
CT
2821 of 129 ppb
(29 ppb)
2Pawc Homesite
Wilkes-barre, PA
5521 of 2118.44 ppb
(1.75 to 31.55 ppb)
3Beardstown
Beardstown, IL
6,00027 of 299.25 ppb
(0 to 25.23 ppb)
4Peabody Dps Water Dept.
Peabody, MA
48,00020 of 207.75 ppb
(4 to 11 ppb)
5Howard Manor Condominiums
Plaistow, NH
3022 of 247.25 ppb
(0 to 26 ppb)
6City of Hallandale Beach
Hallandale Beach, FL
40,0001 of 55.4 ppb
(0 to 27 ppb)
7Newport Wtr. & Swr. Dist
Newport, OH
1,64912 of 205.24 ppb
(0 to 11 ppb)
8Camelot Mhp
Asheville, NC
855 of 75.23 ppb
(0 to 7.7 ppb)
9Grafton Water District
Grafton, MA
9,80015 of 244.93 ppb
(0 to 26.5 ppb)
10Burlington Water Dept
Burlington, MA
23,3019 of 104.73 ppb
(0 to 7.5 ppb)

Health Based Limits for cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene

StandardDescriptionLevel
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.70 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.70 ppb
Lifetime health-based limit, non-cancer riskConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for a lifetime of exposure. The Lifetime health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is based on exposure for a a 70-kg adult consuming 2 liters of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.70 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.350 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.1000 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.4000 ppb

Testing Summary for cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene

Are tests routinely required for cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene (2004-2009):33,956 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.6 per year

Violation Summary for cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations0
Monitoring Violations4,301
Reporting Violations0

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1984
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis 1984
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis 1984

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
nervous system - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study National Library of Medicine HazMap

Miscellaneous

Type of concern: Reference:
Occupational hazards related to handling European Union - Classification & Labelling



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & Labelling1,2-DICHLOROETHYLENE; [1] ; CIS-DICHLOROETHYLENE; [2] ; TRANS-DICHLOROETHYLENE [3]•Highly flammable
•Highly flammable
•Harmful
•Harmful by inhalation
•Harmful to aquatic organisms
National Library of Medicine HazMap1,2-DICHLOROETHYLENE, ALL ISOMERS•Hepatotoxin: Hepatotoxin, Secondary;
•Neurotoxin: CNS Solvent Syndrome;
•PEL (OSHA) - Permissible exposure limit (OSHA): 200 ppm;
•LC50 - Lethal concentration in 50% of animals tested: 130338 ppm, trans isomer, 32000 ppm, cis isomer;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 200 ppm;
•Flammability (NFPA) - NFPA flammability code: 0 = will not burn; 1 = must be preheated; 2 = high ambient temp required; 3 = may ignite at ambient temp; 4 = burn readily: 3: may ignite at ambient temperature;
•IDLH (NIOSH) - Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health: 1000 ppm;
•Odor Threshold High - The lowest concentration at which a substance can be detected or recognized using the sense of smell: 17 ppm;
•Odor Threshold Low - The lowest concentration at which a substance can be detected or recognized using the sense of smell: 0.08 ppm;
•MAK - Maximum Allowable Concentration (Federal Republic of Germany): 200 ppm;
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007ETHYLENE, 1,2-DICHLORO-, (Z)-• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1984ETHYLENE, 1,2-DICHLORO-, (Z)-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (rat lvr)
RTECS®- Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis 1984ETHYLENE, 1,2-DICHLORO-, (Z)-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Saccharomyces cerevisiae )
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Gene Conversion and Mitotic Recombination (Saccharomyces cerevisiae )
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Host-mediated Assay (mouse )



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1984RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London). (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 5,1629,1984
RTECS®- Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis 1984RTECS®- Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 4,365,1984

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