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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

bis(2-chloroethyl) ether


Status: Unregulated - EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether is a synthetic chemical used as a solvent, cleaner, component of paint and varnish, rust inhibitor and a chemical intermediate in production of pesticides.

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
1
1
-
Water utilities
1
1
-
People Served
201,000
201,000
-

Health Concerns for bis(2-chloroethyl) ether:


bis(2-chloroethyl) ether Exposure by State

Water utilities in 1 states have reported detecting bis(2-chloroethyl) ether in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with bis(2-chloroethyl) ether contaminationWater suppliers reporting bis(2-chloroethyl) ether above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
Delaware1201,0001201,000
Total1201,0001201,000

The Most Polluted Communities

1 water utilities reported detecting bis(2-chloroethyl) ether in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average bis(2-chloroethyl) ether level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Artesian Water Company
Newark, DE
201,00037 of 790.06 ppb
(0 to 1.33 ppb)

Health Based Limits for bis(2-chloroethyl) ether

StandardDescriptionLevel
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.03 ppb
Health-Based Screening LevelA benchmark concentration of contaminants in water that may be of potential concern for human health, if exceeded. For noncarcinogens, the HBSL represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse effects over a lifetime of exposure. For carcinogens, the HBSL range represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that corresponds to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 chance in 1 million to 1 chance in 10 thousand. Source: U.S. Geological Survey.0.03 ppb-3 ppb
Health-Based Screening LevelA benchmark concentration of contaminants in water that may be of potential concern for human health, if exceeded. For noncarcinogens, the HBSL represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse effects over a lifetime of exposure. For carcinogens, the HBSL range represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that corresponds to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 chance in 1 million to 1 chance in 10 thousand. Source: U.S. Geological Survey.300 ppb

Testing Summary for bis(2-chloroethyl) ether

Are tests routinely required for bis(2-chloroethyl) ether by federal law?No
Water suppliers reporting tests for bis(2-chloroethyl) ether (2004-2009):358 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):1.2 per year

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Possible human carcinogen California EPA Proposition 65
Cancer - strong evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity NIOSH Occupational Carcinogens
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- HEW Publication (FDA 1978
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1986
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1994
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1996
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at very low doses RTECS®- American Journal of Ophthalmology 1946
Classified as very toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,16,1973

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at moderate doses RTECS®- Union Carbide Data Sheet 1971
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at high doses RTECS®- Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 1948

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
nervous system - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study National Library of Medicine HazMap



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingBIS(2-CHLOROETHYL) ETHER•Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
•Very toxic by inhalation, skin contact, and ingestion
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsDICHLOROETHYL ETHER• o
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsBIS(2-CHLOROETHYL) ETHER•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)BIS(CHLOROETHYL)ETHER (BCEE)•Group B2: Probable human carcinogen - sufficient data in animals (EPA classification)
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsDICHLOROETHYL ETHER (BIS(2-CHLOROETHYL)ETHER)•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMapDICHLOROETHYL ETHER•Skin Designation (ACGIH) - Danger of cutaneous absorption (ACGIH): Yes;
•Hepatotoxin: Hepatotoxin, Secondary;
•Neurotoxin: CNS Solvent Syndrome;
•STEL (ACGIH) - Short-term exposure limits (ACGIH): 10 ppm;
•LC50 - Lethal concentration in 50% of animals tested: 243 ppm;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 5 ppm;
•Flammability (NFPA) - NFPA flammability code: 0 = will not burn; 1 = must be preheated; 2 = high ambient temp required; 3 = may ignite at ambient temp; 4 = burn readily: 2: high ambient temperature required;
•IDLH (NIOSH) - Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health: 100 ppm;
•Lacrimator - A substance that irritates the eyes and induces the flow of tears: Yes;
•Odor Threshold High - The lowest concentration at which a substance can be detected or recognized using the sense of smell: 0.05 ppm;
•Odor Threshold Low - The lowest concentration at which a substance can be detected or recognized using the sense of smell: 0.0005 ppm;
•MAK - Maximum Allowable Concentration (Federal Republic of Germany): 10 ppm;
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensBIS(2-CHLOROETHYL)ETHER•IARC Group 3 (no cancer link)
NIOSH Occupational CarcinogensDICHLOROETHYL ETHER•Potential occupational carcinogen according to NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health)
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)1,1'-OXYBIS[2-CHLORO-ETHANE•Persistent toxicant under Canada's Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics program - targeted for elimination or reduction
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs1,1'-OXYBIS[2-CHLORO-ETHANE•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
California EPA Proposition 65BIS(2-CHLOROETHYL)ETHER•Carcinogen: California Proposition 65
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support CenterBIS(2-CHLOROETHYL) ETHER•Respiratory toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support CenterBIS(2-CHLOROETHYL) ETHER•Skin or sense organ toxicity hazards: suspected
Proposition 65 List of CarcinogensBIS(2-CHLOROETHYL) ETHER•Cancer hazards: recognized
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007BIS(2-CHLOROETHYL) ETHER• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- American Journal of Ophthalmology 1946BIS(2-CHLOROETHYL) ETHER• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1996BIS(2-CHLOROETHYL) ETHER• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Gene Conversion and Mitotic Recombination (Drosophila melanogaster ihl)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1994BIS(2-CHLOROETHYL) ETHER• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: (Drosophila melanogaster par)
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1986BIS(2-CHLOROETHYL) ETHER• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- HEW Publication (FDA 1978BIS(2-CHLOROETHYL) ETHER• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 1948BIS(2-CHLOROETHYL) ETHER• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,16,1973BIS(2-CHLOROETHYL) ETHER• occupationally related - MSHA STANDARD-air (human TWA)
RTECS®- Union Carbide Data Sheet 1971BIS(2-CHLOROETHYL) ETHER• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
NIOSH Occupational CarcinogensNIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 2006. NIOSH Carcinogens List (Potential occupational carcinogens). http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npotocca.html.
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)EC (Environment Canada). 1994. Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET). ARET substance list of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
California EPA Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- American Journal of Ophthalmology 1946RTECS®- American Journal of Ophthalmology. (Ophthalmic Pub. Co., 435 N. Michigan Ave., Suite 1415, Chicago, IL 60611) Series 3: V.1- 29,1363,1946
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1996RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London). (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 17,1083,1996
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1994RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 23,51,1994
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1986RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis. (New York, NY) V.1-9, 1979-87. For publisher information, see EMMUEG. 8(Suppl 7),1,1986
RTECS®- HEW Publication (FDA 1978RTECS®- HEW Publication (FDA. United States). (Washington, DC) ?-1979(?). For publisher information, see HPFSDS. FDA-78-1046,1978
RTECS®- Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 1948RTECS®- Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. (Cambridge, MA) V.18-31, 1936-49. For publisher information, see AEHLAU. 30,63,1948
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,16,1973RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,16,1973
RTECS®- Union Carbide Data Sheet 1971RTECS®- Union Carbide Data Sheet. (Union Carbide Corp., 39 Old Ridgebury Rd., Danbury, CT 06817) 12/29/1971

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