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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

alpha-Lindane


Status: Unregulated - EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Alpha-lindane is a component of the insecticide HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) formerly used for gardens, lumber and cattle, and phased out of use in the U.S. in the 1970s.

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
1
1
-
Water utilities
1
1
-
People Served
201,000
201,000
-

Health Concerns for alpha-Lindane:


alpha-Lindane Exposure by State

Water utilities in 1 states have reported detecting alpha-Lindane in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with alpha-Lindane contaminationWater suppliers reporting alpha-Lindane above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
Delaware1201,0001201,000
Total1201,0001201,000

The Most Polluted Communities

1 water utilities reported detecting alpha-Lindane in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average alpha-Lindane level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Artesian Water Company
Newark, DE
201,0001 of 83< 0.01 ppb
(0 to 0.02 ppb)

Health Based Limits for alpha-Lindane

StandardDescriptionLevel
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.<0.01 ppb
Health-Based Screening LevelA benchmark concentration of contaminants in water that may be of potential concern for human health, if exceeded. For noncarcinogens, the HBSL represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse effects over a lifetime of exposure. For carcinogens, the HBSL range represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that corresponds to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 chance in 1 million to 1 chance in 10 thousand. Source: U.S. Geological Survey.<0.01 ppb-0.6 ppb

Testing Summary for alpha-Lindane

Are tests routinely required for alpha-Lindane by federal law?No
Water suppliers reporting tests for alpha-Lindane (2004-2009):1,030 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.3 per year

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1988
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1987
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Cancer Research 1982
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1975

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife and humans United Nations Environment Programme/POPs Treaty
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)ALPHA-HEXACHLOROCYCLOHEXANE (ALPHA-HCH)•Group B2: Probable human carcinogen - sufficient data in animals (EPA classification)
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)(1.ALPHA.,2.ALPHA.,3.BETA.,4.ALPHA.,5.BETA.,6.BETA.)-CYCLOHEXANE, 1,2,3,4,5,6-HEXACHLORO-•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant under Canada's Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics program - targeted for elimination or reduction
United Nations Environment Programme/POPs Treaty(1.ALPHA.,2.ALPHA.,3.BETA.,4.ALPHA.,5.BETA.,6.BETA.)-CYCLOHEXANE, 1,2,3,4,5,6-HEXACHLORO-•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - action subject to pending risk assessment under international treaty (Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, or POPs Convention)
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs(1.ALPHA.,2.ALPHA.,3.BETA.,4.ALPHA.,5.BETA.,6.BETA.)-CYCLOHEXANE, 1,2,3,4,5,6-HEXACHLORO-•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
RTECS®- Cancer Research 1982CYCLOHEXANE, 1,2,3,4,5,6-HEXACHLORO-, ALPHA-ISOMER• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (rat lvr)
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1987CYCLOHEXANE, 1,2,3,4,5,6-HEXACHLORO-, ALPHA-ISOMER• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (rat orl)
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1988CYCLOHEXANE, 1,2,3,4,5,6-HEXACHLORO-, ALPHA-ISOMER• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (rat orl)
RTECS®- Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1975CYCLOHEXANE, 1,2,3,4,5,6-HEXACHLORO-, ALPHA-ISOMER• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (rat orl)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)EC (Environment Canada). 1994. Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET). ARET substance list of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals.
United Nations Environment Programme/POPs TreatyUNEP (United Nations Environment Programme). 2001. Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) — POPs Treaty.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
RTECS®- Cancer Research 1982RTECS®- Cancer Research. (Public Ledger Building, Suit 816, 6th & Chestnut Sts., Philadelphia, PA 19106) V.1- 42,3010,1982
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1987RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London). (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 8,1433,1987
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1988RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London). (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 9,387,1988
RTECS®- Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1975RTECS®- Journal of the National Cancer Institute. (Washington, DC) V.1-60, 1940-78. For publisher information, see JJIND8. 54,1245,1975

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