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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Vinyl chloride


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Vinyl chloride is a chemical used for production of PVC plastic; it contaminates drinking water due to leaching from PVC pipes and discharges from plastics manufacturing. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
27
27
11
Water utilities
121
121
19
People Served
1,425,822
1,425,822
226,466

Health Concerns for Vinyl chloride:


Vinyl chloride Exposure by State

Water utilities in 27 states have reported detecting Vinyl chloride in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Vinyl chloride contaminationWater suppliers reporting Vinyl chloride above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
New York10316,70110316,701
Indiana2266,5002266,500
Illinois24182,63024182,630
Florida4158,3324158,332
California4107,3154107,315
Minnesota697,322697,322
Wisconsin559,153559,153
Missouri1750,0001750,000
Connecticut133,143133,143
Ohio330,849330,849
Nebraska326,170326,170
Massachusetts225,677225,677
Arizona1223,9681223,968
New Jersey220,100220,100
Iowa37,95337,953
North Carolina33,50833,508
Delaware33,24633,246
Alaska13,09213,092
New Mexico12,40112,401
Arkansas32,35532,355
Virginia31,73531,735
Oklahoma31,67531,675
Pennsylvania16401640
Utah16201620
Alabama14561456
New Hampshire21802180
Michigan11011101
Total1211,425,8221211,425,822

The Most Polluted Communities

121 water utilities reported detecting Vinyl chloride in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Vinyl chloride level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Crestwood
Crestwood, IL
10,8236 of 72.97 ppb
(0 to 5 ppb)
2Leflore Co Rwd # 3
Whitesboro, OK
1,3757 of 72.37 ppb
(0.7 to 5.9 ppb)
3Witches Brook Water Company
Townsend, MA
1,9841 of 31.67 ppb
(0 to 5 ppb)
4Sauk
Sauk Village, IL
10,7349 of 101.53 ppb
(0 to 3.15 ppb)
5Okarche Rwd
Okarche, OK
2505 of 101.23 ppb
(0 to 4.04 ppb)
6Allegan County Services Center
Allegan, MI
1011 of 11.2 ppb
(1.2 ppb)
7Saint Louis Park
St Louis Park, MN
44,12624 of 271.1 ppb
(0 to 3 ppb)
8Jerdone Island Subdivision
Bumpass, VA
502 of 40.88 ppb
(0 to 2.3 ppb)
9Richardson Co. Rwd #2
Rulo, NE
6404 of 50.85 ppb
(0 to 1.8 ppb)
10Lyon-Sioux Rws-Boyden
Rock Rapid, IA
5251 of 20.85 ppb
(0 to 1.7 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Vinyl chloride

StandardDescriptionLevel
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0 ppb
One in one million (10-6) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.02 ppb
California Public Health GoalsDefined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.0.05 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.2 ppb
One in ten thousand (10-4) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 10,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.2 ppb
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.2 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.100 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.3000 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.3000 ppb

Testing Summary for Vinyl chloride

Are tests routinely required for Vinyl chloride by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for Vinyl chloride (2004-2009):33,520 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.6 per year

Violation Summary for Vinyl chloride

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for Vinyl chloride since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations5
Monitoring Violations3,853
Reporting Violations0

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human carcinogen European Union - Classification & Labelling
Known human carcinogen Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens
Known human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Known human carcinogen Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens
Known human carcinogen NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th Edition
Possible human carcinogen European Union - Classification & Labelling
Possible human carcinogen National Library of Medicine HazMap
Possible human carcinogen California EPA Proposition 65
Cancer - strong evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity NIOSH Occupational Carcinogens
Cancer - moderate evidence - gastrointestinal CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Cancer - limited evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Cancer - limited evidence Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews Database
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicology 1978
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1997
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 1981
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Chemico-Biological Interactions 1978
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Chemico-Biological Interactions 1981
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1984
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Chemico-Biological Interactions 1977
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Gigiena i Sanitariya 1978
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1981
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1980
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland) 1985
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1976
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicological European Research 1981
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1988
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1979
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 1980
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1978
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental Science Research 1982
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2008
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 1975
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Cell Biology and Toxicology 1985
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Biochemical Pharmacology 1975
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1978
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1996
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1976
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicologist 2002

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Strong evidence of human neurotoxicity Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
Known human cardiovascular toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Possible human gastrointestinal toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Possible human hematologic toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Possible human respiratory toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Possible human musculoskeletal toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of cardiovascular toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases, 2000
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicity LaDou, J, 1990
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicity California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 2000
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
reproductive - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study National Library of Medicine HazMap
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as a low human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Human hematologic toxicant or allergen - moderate evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of immune toxicity or allergies CHE Toxicant and Disease Database

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Human nervous system toxicant - moderate evidence Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of nervous system toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity US EPA, 9204

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,31,1973

Biochemical or cellular level changes

Type of concern: Reference:
Cancer - limited evidence - immune system CHE Toxicant and Disease Database

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be persistent Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Miscellaneous

Type of concern: Reference:
Occupational hazards related to handling European Union - Classification & Labelling



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingVINYL CHLORIDE•Extremely flammable
•Extremely flammable
•Known to cause cancer
•May cause cancer
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensVINYL CHLORIDE•Confirmed human carcinogen (ACGIH classification A1)
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsVINYL CHLORIDE MONOMER• o
U.S. - Ingredients Prohibited and Restricted in Cosmetics by FDA RegulationsVINYL CHLORIDE•Prohibited for use in cosmetics by FDA (US)
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsVINYL CHLORIDE•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListETHENE, CHLORO-•This chemical was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical was flagged for as a low human health priority.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)VINYL CHLORIDE•Group A: Human carcinogen according (EPA classification)
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)VINYL CHLORIDE•Known human carcinogen (EPA classification)
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsVINYL CHLORIDE•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMapVINYL CHLORIDE•Reproductive Toxin - A chemical that is toxic to the reproductive system, including defects in the progeny and injury to male and female reproductive function: Yes;
•Restricted - Regulations that have banned or restricted the use of the agent: See 29 CFR 1910.1017;;
•Lung Cancer - Cancer of the lung caused by occupational exposures-all of these agents are in the IARC Group 1 (known human carcinogens): Yes;
•Hepatotoxin: Hepatotoxin, Secondary;
•PEL (OSHA) - Permissible exposure limit (OSHA): 1 ppm, STEL(OSHA) = 5 ppm(avg. not exceeding any 15 min);
•IARC Carcinogen - International Agency for Research on Cancer; classifies chemicals as established (1), probable (2a), or possible (2b) human carcinogens: Known Carcinogen;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 1 ppm;
•Flammability (NFPA) - NFPA flammability code: 0 = will not burn; 1 = must be preheated; 2 = high ambient temp required; 3 = may ignite at ambient temp; 4 = burn readily: 4: burns readily;
•Odor Threshold High - The lowest concentration at which a substance can be detected or recognized using the sense of smell: 20 ppm;
•Odor Threshold Low - The lowest concentration at which a substance can be detected or recognized using the sense of smell: 10 ppm;
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensVINYL CHLORIDE•IARC Group 1: carcinogenic to humans (International Agency for Research on Carcinogens)
NIOSH Occupational CarcinogensVINYL CHLORIDE•Potential occupational carcinogen according to NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health)
NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th EditionVINYL CHLORIDE•Known human carcinogen (National Toxicology Program classification)
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsCHLOROETHENE•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
California EPA Proposition 65VINYL CHLORIDE•Carcinogen: California Proposition 65
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004VINYL CHLORIDE•Gastrointestinal or liver toxicity hazards: suspected
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004VINYL CHLORIDE•Developmental toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, 9204VINYL CHLORIDE•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases, 2000VINYL CHLORIDE•Respiratory toxicity hazards: suspected
LaDou, J, 1990VINYL CHLORIDE•Cardiovascular or blood toxicity hazards: suspected
California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 2000VINYL CHLORIDE•Skin or sense organ toxicity hazards: suspected
Proposition 65 List of CarcinogensVINYL CHLORIDE•Cancer hazards: recognized
Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews DatabaseVINYL CHLORIDE•Chemicals Shown to Cause Mammary Gland Tumors in Animal Studies
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007VINYL CHLORIDE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 1980VINYL CHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster ihl)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (hamster ihl)
RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 1981VINYL CHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (rat ihl)
RTECS®- Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 1975VINYL CHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Biochemical Pharmacology 1975VINYL CHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland) 1985VINYL CHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (mouse emb)
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1996VINYL CHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: (Drosophila melanogaster ihl)
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1997VINYL CHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells ( human lym)
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1984VINYL CHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (rat lvr)
RTECS®- Cell Biology and Toxicology 1985VINYL CHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Chemico-Biological Interactions 1977VINYL CHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Inhibition (rat ivn)
RTECS®- Chemico-Biological Interactions 1978VINYL CHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Adduct (rat orl)
RTECS®- Chemico-Biological Interactions 1981VINYL CHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (rat ihl)
RTECS®- Environmental Science Research 1982VINYL CHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- Gigiena i Sanitariya 1978VINYL CHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (rat ihl)
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,31,1973VINYL CHLORIDE• occupationally related - MSHA STANDARD-air (human TWA)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1988VINYL CHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (hamster emb)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1976VINYL CHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Schizosaccharomyces pombe )
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Gene Conversion and Mitotic Recombination (Saccharomyces cerevisiae )
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Host-mediated Assay (mouse )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1978VINYL CHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster mul)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1978VINYL CHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA repair (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1978VINYL CHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction (Drosophila melanogaster ihl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2008VINYL CHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster lng)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1979VINYL CHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (hamster lng)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1980VINYL CHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (mouse ihl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1981VINYL CHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Host-mediated Assay (rat )
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994VINYL CHLORIDE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Fed Cont) (human TWA)
RTECS®- Toxicological European Research 1981VINYL CHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Host-mediated Assay (mouse )
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2002VINYL CHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Toxicology 1978VINYL CHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis ( human hla)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) 2008. ACGIH cancer classification system. www.acgih.org.
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
U.S. - Ingredients Prohibited and Restricted in Cosmetics by FDA RegulationsFDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration), 2006. Ingredients Prohibited and Restricted by FDA Regulations. FDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Office of Cosmetics and Colors. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/cos-210.html.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
NIOSH Occupational CarcinogensNIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 2006. NIOSH Carcinogens List (Potential occupational carcinogens). http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npotocca.html.
NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th EditionNTP (National Toxicology Program). 2005. Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
California EPA Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, DiPalma, J.A., J. Cunningham, J. Herrera, T. McCaffery, and D. Wolf. Occupational and Industrial Toxin Exposures and the Gastrointestinal Tract. American Journal of Gastroenterology. 86(9): 1107-1117. 1991. (Table 2: Selected Agents with Purported Digestive System Injury)., Dossing, M. and P. Skinhoj. Occupational Liver Injury. Present State of Knowledge and Future Perspectives. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. 56:1-21. 1985. (Table 2: Chemically induced liver injury: morphologic features and examples of confirmed and suspected causative agents)., US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, Klaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996., LaDou, J. (ed.). Occupational Medicine. Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, CN. 1990., California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation., Zimmerman, H.J. and J.H. Lewis. Chemical- and Toxin-Induced Hepatotoxicity. Gastroenterology Clinics of North America. 24(4): 1027-1045. 1995. (Table 3: Forms of environmental hepatic injury).
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, US EPA. Roadmaps to Sources of Information on Chemicals Listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-to-Know Act (Also Known as SARA Title 3), Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory (for Microcomputers). (Report Number EPADFDK92040). 1991. Data file distributed in 2 diskettes by Office of Pollution, Prevention, and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. NOTE: Datasource no longer being maintained by EPA; not currently available online., Jankovic, J. A Screening Method for Occupational Reproductive Health Risk. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. 57: 641-649. 1996.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA. Roadmaps to Sources of Information on Chemicals Listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-to-Know Act (Also Known as SARA Title 3), Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory (for Microcomputers). (Report Number EPADFDK92040). 1991. Data file distributed in 2 diskettes by Office of Pollution, Prevention, and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. NOTE: Datasource no longer being maintained by EPA; not currently available online., Frazier , L. and M. L. Hage (eds.). Reproductive Hazards of the Workplace, Wiley Europe, 1998. Table 10 (Partial List of Reproductive Toxicants) available at http://www.pharmacy.ohio-state.edu/homepage/safety/chemhygiene_table_repro.pdf., A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationA Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Acute Reference Exposure Levels (RELs), Averaging Times, and Toxicologic Endpoints. Includes all Acute Reference Exposure Levels (ARELs) developed by OEHHA through May 2000http://www.oehha.org/air/acute_rels/allAcRELs.html, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationLaDou, J. (ed.). Occupational Medicine. Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, CN. 1990., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationCalifornia EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Acute Reference Exposure Levels (RELs), Averaging Times, and Toxicologic Endpoints. Includes all Acute Reference Exposure Levels (ARELs) developed by OEHHA through May 2000http://www.oehha.org/air/acute_rels/allAcRELs.html, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews DatabaseRudel RA, KR Attfield, JN Schifano and JG Brody. Chemicals Causing Mammary Gland Tumors in Animals Signal New Directions for Epidemiology, Chemicals Testing, and Risk Assessment for Breast Cancer Prevention. CANCER Supplement. 2007 Jun 15;109(12):2635-2666.
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RTECS®- Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 1975RTECS®- Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 63,363,1975
RTECS®- Biochemical Pharmacology 1975RTECS®- Biochemical Pharmacology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 24,2013,1975
RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland) 1985RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland). (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 28,85,1985
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1996RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London). (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 17,1083,1996
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1997RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London). (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 18,31,1997
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1984RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London). (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 5,1629,1984
RTECS®- Cell Biology and Toxicology 1985RTECS®- Cell Biology and Toxicology. (Princeton Scientific Pub., Inc., 301 N. Harrison St., CN 5279, Princeton, NJ 08540) V.1- 1(3),159,1985
RTECS®- Chemico-Biological Interactions 1977RTECS®- Chemico-Biological Interactions. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 17,239,1977
RTECS®- Chemico-Biological Interactions 1978RTECS®- Chemico-Biological Interactions. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 22,211,1978
RTECS®- Chemico-Biological Interactions 1981RTECS®- Chemico-Biological Interactions. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 37,219,1981
RTECS®- Environmental Science Research 1982RTECS®- Environmental Science Research. (Plenum Pub. Corp., 233 Spring St., New York, NY 10013) V.1- 1972- 25,91,1982
RTECS®- Gigiena i Sanitariya 1978RTECS®- Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 43(7),111,1978
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,31,1973RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,31,1973
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1988RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 203,397,1988
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1976RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 40,85,1976
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1978RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 53,187,1978
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RTECS®- Mutation Research 2008RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 652,122,2008
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RTECS®- Mutation Research 1981RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 91,381,1981
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204.50,1994
RTECS®- Toxicological European Research 1981RTECS®- Toxicological European Research. (S.P.E., 10, Ave. de Messine, 75008 Paris, France) V.1- 1978- 3,131,1981
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2002RTECS®- Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981- 66,37,2002
RTECS®- Toxicology 1978RTECS®- Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 9,21,1978

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