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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Vanadium


Status: Unregulated - EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Vanadium is a metal used as an alloying addition to iron & steel; it is discharged from ceramic, glass, textile, photography, metallurgy and rubber industries.

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
4
-
-
Water utilities
670
-
-
People Served
38,002,492
-
-

Health Concerns for Vanadium:


Vanadium Exposure by State

Water utilities in 4 states have reported detecting Vanadium in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Vanadium contamination
SystemsPopulation
California66536,815,513
Nevada31,182,903
Vermont13,865
Illinois1211
Total67038,002,492

The Most Polluted Communities

670 water utilities reported detecting Vanadium in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Vanadium level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Caruthers Comm Serv Dist
Caruthers, CA
2,1031 of 181.33 ppb
(81.33 ppb)
2Mobile Plaza Park
Ceres, CA
1251 of 162 ppb
(62 ppb)
3Del Oro River Island Serv Terr #1
Porterville, CA
9753 of 361 ppb
(48.2 to 77 ppb)
4Sbndo County Service Area 70j
Victorville, CA
4,8214 of 558 ppb
(0 to 96 ppb)
5City of Ripon
Ripon, CA
8,2006 of 655.08 ppb
(53 to 58 ppb)
6City of Mcfarland
Mcfarland, CA
12,1387 of 749.21 ppb
(8 to 87 ppb)
7Camrosa Water District
Camarillo, CA
27,0006 of 648.44 ppb
(13.5 to 68.5 ppb)
8City of Dinuba
Dinuba, CA
19,2977 of 748.29 ppb
(38 to 59 ppb)
9East Orosi C.S.D.
Orosi, CA
1061 of 148 ppb
(48 ppb)
10City of Kingsburg
Kingsburg, CA
11,3003 of 347.28 ppb
(42.67 to 56 ppb)

Testing Summary for Vanadium

Are tests routinely required for Vanadium by federal law?No
Water suppliers reporting tests for Vanadium (2004-2009):1,434 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.5 per year

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Human immune system toxicant or allergen - strong evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies nternational Programme of Chemical Safety Environmental Health Criteria 180, 1996

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human renal toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Known human respiratory toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Possible human respiratory toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
One or more animal studies show broad systemic effects at low doses RTECS®- Farmakologiya i Toksikologiya (Moscow) 1965
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
Limited evidence of kidney toxicity Merck & Co
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
One or more animal studies show gastrointestinal effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva 1993
One or more animal studies show metabolic effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Toxicology Letters
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to very low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
Human immune system irritant - strong evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect effects at high doses RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva 1993

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show tumor formation at high doses RTECS®- Progress Report for Contract No

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsVANADIUM• o
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListVANADIUM•This chemical was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical was flagged for suspected persistence.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsVANADIUM•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsVANADIUM COMPOUNDS•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004VANADIUM•Respiratory toxicity hazards: suspected
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004VANADIUM•Kidney toxicity hazards: suspected
nternational Programme of Chemical Safety Environmental Health Criteria 180, 1996VANADIUM•Immunotoxicity hazards: suspected
Merck & CoVANADIUM COMPOUNDS•Kidney toxicity hazards: suspected
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006VANADIUM• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva 1993VANADIUM• brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect - Food intake (animal) (domestic TDLo)
• gastrointestinal - Hypermotility, diarrhea (domestic TDLo)
RTECS®- Farmakologiya i Toksikologiya (Moscow) 1965VANADIUM• broad systemic - Broad systemic toxicity (rabbit LD50)
RTECS®- Progress Report for Contract No VANADIUM• cancer - Tumors at site of application (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Toxicology Letters VANADIUM• metabolic - Weight loss or decreased weight gain (rat TDLo)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, Klaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996., Lu, F.C. Basic Toxicology. 2nd Edition. 1991., Nemery, B. Metal Toxicity and the Respiratory Tract. European Respiratory Journal. 3(2): 202-219. 1990.(Table 1: Summary of pulmonary toxicity of metals).
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, Merck & Co. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. TABLE 226-1. Common Nephrotoxic Agents http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual/tables/226tb1.htm
Scorecard.org Toxicity Informationnternational Programme of Chemical Safety Environmental Health Criteria 180. Principles and Methods for Assessing Direct Immunotoxicity Associated with Exposure to Chemicals. World Health Organization. Geneva, 1996. (Table 1: Examples of compounds that are immunotoxic for humans or rodents).
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationMerck & Co. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. TABLE 226-1. Common Nephrotoxic Agents http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual/tables/226tb1.htm
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006
RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva 1993RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva. Neorganicheskie soedinenia elementov V-VII groopp" (Hazardous substances. Inornanic substances containing V-VII group elements), Bandman A.L. et al., Chimia, 1989. -,132,1993
RTECS®- Farmakologiya i Toksikologiya (Moscow) 1965RTECS®- Farmakologiya i Toksikologiya (Moscow). For English translation, see PHTXA6 and RPTOAN. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.2- 1939- 28,83,1965
RTECS®- Progress Report for Contract No RTECS®- Progress Report for Contract No. PH-43-64-886, Submitted to the National Cancer Institute by The Institute of Chemical Biology, University of San Francisco. (San Francisco, CA 94117) PH43-64-886
RTECS®- Toxicology Letters RTECS®- Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977- 109(Suppl

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