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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Trifluralin


Status: Unregulated - EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Trifluralin is an herbicide that acts on grasses and broadleaf weeds, and is used for cotton, alfalfa, tomatoes, home lawns and other applications.

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
2
-
-
Water utilities
5
-
-
People Served
62,491
-
-

Health Concerns for Trifluralin:


Trifluralin Exposure by State

Water utilities in 2 states have reported detecting Trifluralin in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Trifluralin contamination
SystemsPopulation
California153,903
Illinois48,588
Total562,491

The Most Polluted Communities

5 water utilities reported detecting Trifluralin in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Trifluralin level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Broadview Academy
Elburn, IL
851 of 50.01 ppb
(0 to 0.05 ppb)
2Allendale
Allendale, IL
5281 of 50.01 ppb
(0 to 0.05 ppb)
3City of Lodi
Lodi, CA
53,9031 of 11< 0.01 ppb
(0 to 0.08 ppb)
4Dixie Estates Subdivision
Crete, IL
1751 of 12< 0.01 ppb
(0 to 0.06 ppb)
5Rock Island Arsenal
Rock Island, IL
7,8001 of 20< 0.01 ppb
(0 to 0.05 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Trifluralin

StandardDescriptionLevel
One in one million (10-6) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.4 ppb
Lifetime health-based limit, non-cancer riskConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for a lifetime of exposure. The Lifetime health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is based on exposure for a a 70-kg adult consuming 2 liters of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.10 ppb
Health-Based Screening LevelA benchmark concentration of contaminants in water that may be of potential concern for human health, if exceeded. For noncarcinogens, the HBSL represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse effects over a lifetime of exposure. For carcinogens, the HBSL range represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that corresponds to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 chance in 1 million to 1 chance in 10 thousand. Source: U.S. Geological Survey.20 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.80 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.80 ppb
One in ten thousand (10-4) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 10,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.400 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.700 ppb

Testing Summary for Trifluralin

Are tests routinely required for Trifluralin by federal law?No
Water suppliers reporting tests for Trifluralin (2004-2009):4,014 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.4 per year

Endocrine disruption

Type of concern: Reference:
Human disruptor - strong evidence European Commission on Endocrine Disruption
Limited evidence of wildlife and the environment disruption European Commission on Endocrine Disruption
Limited evidence of endocrine disruption Illinois EPA, 1997
endocrine - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System
endocrine - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study Our Stolen Future Endocrine Disruptors

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
Classified as a high human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicity European Economic Community

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife and humans EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
Persistent or bioaccumulative and moderate to high toxicity concern in humans Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible Concern
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies European Economic Community

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Possible carcinogen Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Cancer - limited evidence US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 2002
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Pathologica 1981
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Bolletino della Societe Italiana di Biologia Sperimentale 1984
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 1980
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1985
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1986
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1995
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives 1979
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanita 1982
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2004
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity US EPA, 9204
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity US EPA, 9204

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicity Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Water Framework Directive
Suspected to be an environmental toxin and be persistent or bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingTRIFLURALIN (ISO) (CONTAINING;< 0.5 PPM NPDA);;_,_,_-TRIFLUORO-2,6-DINITRO-N,N-DIPROPYL-P-TOLUIDINE (CONTAINING < 0.5 PPM NPDA); 2,6-DINITRO-N,N-DIPROPYL-4-TRI-;FLUOROMETHYLANILINE (CONTAINING < 0.5 PPM NPDA);;N,N-DIPROPYL-2,6-DINITRO-4-TR IFLUOROMETHYLAN•Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
•Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
•May cause sensitization by skin contact
•Dangerous for the environment
•Very toxic to aquatic organisms
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListBENZENAMINE, 2,6-DINITRO-N,N-DIPROPYL-4-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)-•This chemical was deemed a high human health priority and was flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical is suspected to be carcinogenic, persistent, bioaccumulate and toxic to aquatic organisms.
Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine SystemTRIFLURALIN•EPA: probable endocrine disruptor
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)TRIFLURALIN•Group C: Possible human carcinogen (EPA classification)
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionTRIFLURALINHH-CAT1;WF-CAT2
European Union - Water Framework DirectiveTRIFLURALIN•Priority substance in EU water policy
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsTRIFLURALIN•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensTRIFLURALIN•IARC Group 3 (no cancer link)
Our Stolen Future Endocrine DisruptorsTRIFLURALIN
OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible Concern2,6DINITRON,NDIPROPYL4(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)BENZENAMINE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Oslo-Paris (OSPAR) Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic, priority chemical
OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible Concern2,6DINITRON,NDIPROPYL4(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)BENZENAMINE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Oslo-Paris (OSPAR) Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic, chemical of concern
EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)TRIFLURALIN•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, priority chemical for voluntary waste/emission reductions
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs2,6DINITRON,NDIPROPYL4(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)BENZENAMINE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - targeted for waste reporting under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
European Economic CommunityTRIFLURALIN•Immunotoxicity hazards: suspected
European Economic CommunityTRIFLURALIN•Skin or sense organ toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 2002TRIFLURALIN•Cancer hazards: suspected
US EPA, 9204TRIFLURALIN•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, 9204TRIFLURALIN•Developmental toxicity hazards: suspected
Illinois EPA, 1997TRIFLURALIN•Endocrine toxicity hazards: suspected
RTECS®- Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanita 1982TRIFLURALIN (CONTAINING < 0.5 PPM NPDA)• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Gene Conversion and Mitotic Recombination ( Aspergillis nidulans )
RTECS®- Bolletino della Societe Italiana di Biologia Sperimentale 1984TRIFLURALIN (CONTAINING < 0.5 PPM NPDA)• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange ( human lym)
RTECS®- Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 1980TRIFLURALIN (CONTAINING < 0.5 PPM NPDA)• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (mouse ipr)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Dominant Lethal Strain (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives 1979TRIFLURALIN (CONTAINING < 0.5 PPM NPDA)• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction (Neurospora crassa )
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1995TRIFLURALIN (CONTAINING < 0.5 PPM NPDA)• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: (Drosophila melanogaster mul)
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1985TRIFLURALIN (CONTAINING < 0.5 PPM NPDA)• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1986TRIFLURALIN (CONTAINING < 0.5 PPM NPDA)• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995TRIFLURALIN (CONTAINING < 0.5 PPM NPDA)• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human lym)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2004TRIFLURALIN (CONTAINING < 0.5 PPM NPDA)• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: (Drosophila melanogaster orl)
RTECS®- Pathologica 1981TRIFLURALIN (CONTAINING < 0.5 PPM NPDA)• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis ( human lym)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine SystemIllinois EPA (Illinois Environmental Protection Agency). 2000. Preliminary list of chemicals associated with endocrine system effects in animals and humans (*) or in vitro (+). In EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) 2000. Handbook for Non-Cancer Health Effects Valuation, Appendix C.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionEU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
European Union - Water Framework DirectiveEU (European Union). 2000. Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC ) - integrated river basin management for Europe. List of priority substances.
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
Our Stolen Future Endocrine DisruptorsColborn T, D Dumanoski, JP Myers. 2006. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. Updated from original listing in "Our Stolen Future" (1996).
OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible ConcernOSPAR (Oslo-Paris). 2002. OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR. Place Published, OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environement of North-East Atlanic.
EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1998. Resource Conservatin and Recovery Act (RCRA) Waste Minimization Program - priority chemicals for elimination or reduction.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationEuropean Economic Community. Sensitizing Substances in the EEC List of Dangerous Substances. Annex I to Council Directive 67/548/EEC. http://www.kemi.se/default_eng.cfm?page=klass_mark/klasshem_eng.htm
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationEuropean Economic Community. Sensitizing Substances in the EEC List of Dangerous Substances. Annex I to Council Directive 67/548/EEC. http://www.kemi.se/default_eng.cfm?page=klass_mark/klasshem_eng.htm
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, US EPA, National Center for Environmental Assessment. Integrated Risk Information System. http://www.epa.gov/iriswebp/iris/index.html, US EPA, Office of Pesticide Programs. List of Chemicals Evaluated for Carcinogenic Potential (5/10/2002). OPP, Washington, DC. http://www.epi.uci.edu/valleycenter/EPAListCarcinogenicChemicals.pdf, US EPA, Office of Emergency Response and Remediation. Superfund Chemical Data Matrix. http://www.epa.gov/superfund/resources/scdm/index.htm
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA. Roadmaps to Sources of Information on Chemicals Listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-to-Know Act (Also Known as SARA Title 3), Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory (for Microcomputers). (Report Number EPADFDK92040). 1991. Data file distributed in 2 diskettes by Office of Pollution, Prevention, and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. NOTE: Datasource no longer being maintained by EPA; not currently available online.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA. Roadmaps to Sources of Information on Chemicals Listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-to-Know Act (Also Known as SARA Title 3), Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory (for Microcomputers). (Report Number EPADFDK92040). 1991. Data file distributed in 2 diskettes by Office of Pollution, Prevention, and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. NOTE: Datasource no longer being maintained by EPA; not currently available online., Jankovic, J. A Screening Method for Occupational Reproductive Health Risk. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. 57: 641-649. 1996.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationIllinois EPA. Endocrine Disruptors Strategy. 1997. (Table 1: Preliminary List of Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System Effects in Animals and Humans or In Vitro). http://www.nihs.go.jp/hse/environ/illiepatable.htm, Japanese National Institute of Health Sciences. Lists of Paradigmatic Chemicals. http://www.nihs.go.jp/hse/endocrine-e/paradigm/paradigm.html, Keith, L.H. (ed.). Environmental Endocrine Disruptors. John Wiley & Sons, NY. 1997. http://www.wileyeurope.com/cda/product/0,,0471191450%7Cdesc%7C3037,00.html, World Wildlife Fund. Our Stolen Future. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Basics/chemlist.htm. The WWF list is derived from references detailed at http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Sources/chemsources.htm and was originally published in: Colborn, T., F.S. vom Saal, and A.M. Soto. Developmental Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals In Wildlife and Humans. Environmental Health Perspectives 101(5): 378-384. 1993.
RTECS®- Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanita 1982RTECS®- Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanita. (Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato, Piazza Verdi, 10 Rome, Italy) V.1- 18,123,1982
RTECS®- Bolletino della Societe Italiana di Biologia Sperimentale 1984RTECS®- Bolletino della Societe Italiana di Biologia Sperimentale. (Casa Editrice Idelson, Via A. de Gasperi, 55, 80133 Naples, Italy) V.2- 60,2149,1984
RTECS®- Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 1980RTECS®- Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 4,263,1980
RTECS®- EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives 1979RTECS®- EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) No.1- 31,75,1979
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1995RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 25,148,1995
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1985RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis. (New York, NY) V.1-9, 1979-87. For publisher information, see EMMUEG. 7,1,1985
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1986RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis. (New York, NY) V.1-9, 1979-87. For publisher information, see EMMUEG. 8(Suppl 7),1,1986
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 344,41,1995
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2004RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 557,53,2004
RTECS®- Pathologica 1981RTECS®- Pathologica. (Via Alessandro Volta, 8 Casella Postale 894, 16128 Genoa, Italy) V.1- 73,707,1981

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