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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Trichloroethylene


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Trichloroethylene is used to remove grease from fabricated metal parts and in the production of some textiles; this pollutant comes from metal degreasing sites, metal finishing and rubber processing industries. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
39
39
18
Water utilities
653
653
85
People Served
22,899,282
22,899,282
3,164,927

Health Concerns for Trichloroethylene:


Trichloroethylene Exposure by State

Water utilities in 39 states have reported detecting Trichloroethylene in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Trichloroethylene contaminationWater suppliers reporting Trichloroethylene above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
California11410,297,44011410,297,440
New Jersey442,055,864442,055,864
New York581,720,143581,720,143
Pennsylvania831,556,387831,556,387
Florida15848,48915848,489
Arizona9757,0869757,086
Alabama12750,18712750,187
Washington18643,64318643,643
Illinois20617,07920617,079
Wisconsin55504,73255504,732
Massachusetts30456,60730456,607
Minnesota30416,01730416,017
Nevada3317,3403317,340
Connecticut19291,31119291,311
Idaho4247,2804247,280
Indiana8244,9398244,939
Delaware5240,7225240,722
Iowa8102,9388102,938
Ohio18101,71118101,711
New Mexico4100,3094100,309
Rhode Island199,166199,166
Nebraska892,257892,257
Arkansas382,330382,330
Hawaii354,010354,010
Maryland648,611648,611
Oregon239,750239,750
Missouri1038,8621038,862
Utah137,500137,500
New Hampshire1229,6181229,618
Virginia718,260718,260
Maine415,431415,431
South Dakota113,876113,876
Michigan312,639312,639
Texas712,591712,591
North Carolina1911,4061911,406
Oklahoma57,98557,985
Alaska17,30017,300
Kentucky16,36616,366
Vermont21,10021,100
Total65322,899,28265322,899,282

The Most Polluted Communities

653 water utilities reported detecting Trichloroethylene in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Trichloroethylene level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Burlington Water Dept
Burlington, MA
23,3012 of 39.73 ppb
(0 to 15 ppb)
2Adams Ranch Mutual
Rosemead, CA
30016 of 178.38 ppb
(0 to 15 ppb)
320 Station Road - Apt Building
Brookfield, CT
271 of 17.67 ppb
(7.67 ppb)
4LA Verne, City Wd
La Verne, CA
34,009253 of 2547.41 ppb
(0 to 11.73 ppb)
5Whitehall Twp Authority
Whitehall, PA
13,06318 of 217.16 ppb
(0 to 13.1 ppb)
6Sellersville Boro Water Works
Sellersville, PA
4,90050 of 556.93 ppb
(0 to 12.94 ppb)
7Cedarburg L & W Commission
Cedarburg, WI
11,20017 of 176.64 ppb
(2.34 to 12.13 ppb)
8Hicksville Wd
Hicksville, NY
47,810109 of 1306.4 ppb
(0 to 14.97 ppb)
9Big Bear City Csd
Big Bear City, CA
7,00011 of 195.79 ppb
(0 to 13.15 ppb)
10Olean City
Olean, NY
17,00011 of 115.46 ppb
(3.33 to 8 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Trichloroethylene

StandardDescriptionLevel
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0 ppb
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.03 ppb
California Public Health GoalsDefined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.1.7 ppb
One in one million (10-6) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.3 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.5 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.200 ppb
One in ten thousand (10-4) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 10,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.300 ppb

Testing Summary for Trichloroethylene

Are tests routinely required for Trichloroethylene by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for Trichloroethylene (2004-2009):33,976 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.6 per year

Violation Summary for Trichloroethylene

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for Trichloroethylene since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations28
Monitoring Violations4,312
Reporting Violations2

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human carcinogen European Union - Classification & Labelling
Possible human carcinogen Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens
Possible human carcinogen Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens
Possible human carcinogen NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th Edition
Possible human carcinogen California EPA Proposition 65
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity NIOSH Occupational Carcinogens
Mutagen - limited evidence European Union - Classification & Labelling
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 5075
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland) 1981
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Annales de Genetique 1981
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1994
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1998
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- In Vitro 1978
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Cancer Research 1983
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1984
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1982
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Science 1987
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 1977
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland) 1985
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1986
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- National Technical Information Service
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Journal of Environmental Pathology and Toxicology 1978
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1983
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Anesthesiology 1975
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1987
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1987
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1982
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2001
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives 2001
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicology 2004
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 1987
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Biochemical Pharmacology 1975
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1991
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Journal of Environmental Pathology and Toxicology 1978
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1988
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1985
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2004
One or more in vitro tests on microorganisms show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1998

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Strong evidence of human neurotoxicity Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans
One or more animal studies show brain, nervous system, or behavioral effects at high doses RTECS®- Neurotoxicology and Teratology 1990
nervous system - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study National Library of Medicine HazMap

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at low doses EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide Ingredients
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at low doses RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity DiPalma, J, 1107
Limited evidence of kidney toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 1996
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity Foth, H, 1995
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicity Klaassen, C, 1996
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicity California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 2003
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
One or more animal studies show broad systemic effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 1976
One or more animal studies show liver effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Toxicologist 1985
One or more animal studies show kidney or renal system effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Toxicologist 1985
One or more animal studies show metabolic effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 1988
One or more animal studies show liver effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1985
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as a low human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Human nervous system toxicant - moderate evidence Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity US EPA, 9204
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Toxicologist 1984
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Toxicology 1984
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Brain Research 1989

Multiple, additive exposure sources

Type of concern: Reference:
Used in food or as an additive with limited or no toxicity information available FDA Everything Added to Food
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food FDA Food Additive Status

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Endocrine disruption

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of endocrine disruption US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,263,1971
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
Limited evidence of occupational hazards European Union - Classification & Labelling

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
Classified as irritant European Union - Classification & Labelling
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at very low doses RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986

Biochemical or cellular level changes

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show biochemical changes at high doses where the human health implications are not yet well understood RTECS®- Toxicologist 1985
One or more animal studies show biochemical changes at high doses where the human health implications are not yet well understood RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1985

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingTRICHLOROETHYLENE•May cause cancer
•May cause cancer
•Limited evidence of mutagenic effect
•Possible risk of irreversible effects
•Vapours may cause drowsiness and dizziness
•Irritant (eyes, skin, or lungs)
•Irritating to eyes and skin
•Harmful to aquatic organisms
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensTRICHLOROETHYLENE•Suspected human carcinogen (ACGIH classification A2)
FDA Food Additive StatusTRICHLOROETHYLENE• Food additive: solvent
• Food additive: food additive for which a petition has been filed and a regulation issued
• 25 parts per million (0.0025%) -Decaffeinated ground coffee - CFR173.290
• 10 parts per million (0.001%) -Decaffeinated soluble (instant) coffee extract - CFR173.290
• 30 parts per million (0.003%) provided that if residues of other chlorinated solvents are also present
• total residues in spic
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsTRICHLOROETHYLENE• S
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsTRICHLOROETHYLENE• S
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsTRICHLOROETHYLENE•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
FDA Everything Added to FoodTRICHLOROETHYLENE• There is no reported use of the substance and there is no toxicology information available in PAFA.
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListETHENE, TRICHLORO-•This chemical was deemed a low human health priority and was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical was flagged for suspected persistence.
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsTRICHLOROETHYLENE•Prohibited in EU cosmetics: must not form part of the composition of cosmetic products
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsTRICHLOROETHYLENE•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMapTRICHLOROETHYLENE•Restricted - Regulations that have banned or restricted the use of the agent: Banned in the US in 1977;;
•Hepatotoxin: Hepatotoxin, Secondary;
•Nephrotoxin: Yes;
•Neurotoxin: CNS Solvent Syndrome;
•PEL (OSHA) - Permissible exposure limit (OSHA): 100 ppm, Ceiling(OSHA) = 200 ppm(300 ppm for 5-min peak in any 2 hrs);
•STEL (ACGIH) - Short-term exposure limits (ACGIH): 100 ppm;
•LC50 - Lethal concentration in 50% of animals tested: 53196 ppm;
•IARC Carcinogen - International Agency for Research on Cancer; classifies chemicals as established (1), probable (2a), or possible (2b) human carcinogens: Probable Carcinogen;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 50 ppm;BE: Trichloroacetic aci
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensTRICHLOROETHYLENE•IARC Group 2A: probable human carcinogen (International Agency for Research on Carcinogens)
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsTRICHLOROETHYLENE•Pesticide inerts of toxicological concern according to EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
NIOSH Occupational CarcinogensTRICHLOROETHYLENE•Potential occupational carcinogen according to NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health)
NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th EditionTRICHLOROETHYLENE•Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen (National Toxicology Program classification)
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)TRICHLOROETHENE•Toxicant of concern under Canada's Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics program - targeted for elimination or reduction
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsTRICHLOROETHENE•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
California EPA Proposition 65TRICHLOROETHYLENE•Carcinogen: California Proposition 65
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004TRICHLOROETHYLENE•Developmental toxicity hazards: suspected
DiPalma, J, 1107TRICHLOROETHYLENE•Gastrointestinal or liver toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support CenterTRICHLOROETHYLENE•Endocrine toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support CenterTRICHLOROETHYLENE•Immunotoxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 1996TRICHLOROETHYLENE•Kidney toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, 9204TRICHLOROETHYLENE•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
Foth, H, 1995TRICHLOROETHYLENE•Respiratory toxicity hazards: suspected
Klaassen, C, 1996TRICHLOROETHYLENE•Cardiovascular or blood toxicity hazards: suspected
California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 2003TRICHLOROETHYLENE•Skin or sense organ toxicity hazards: suspected
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006TRICHLOROETHYLENE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007TRICHLOROETHYLENE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986TRICHLOROETHYLENE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Anesthesiology 1975TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (hamster fbr)
RTECS®- Anesthesiology 1975TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (hamster fbr)
RTECS®- Annales de Genetique 1981TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange ( human lym)
RTECS®- Annales de Genetique 1981TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange ( human lym)
RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 1976TRICHLOROETHYLENE• broad systemic - Broad systemic toxicity ( human LDLo)
RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 1977TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 1977TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- Biochemical Pharmacology 1975TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Biochemical Pharmacology 1975TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Brain Research 1989TRICHLOROETHYLENE• reproductive - Central nervous system (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland) 1981TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Inhibition ( human lym)
RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland) 1985TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (mouse emb)
RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland) 1981TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Inhibition ( human lym)
RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland) 1985TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (mouse emb)
RTECS®- Cancer Research 1983TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (rat lvr)
RTECS®- Cancer Research 1983TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (rat lvr)
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1983TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (hamster emb)
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1984TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (rat lvr)
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1983TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (hamster emb)
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1984TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (rat lvr)
RTECS®- EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives 2001TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA repair (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives 2001TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA repair (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1987TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2001TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (mouse skn)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2004TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1987TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2001TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (mouse skn)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2004TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- In Vitro 1978TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (rat emb)
RTECS®- Journal of Environmental Pathology and Toxicology 1978TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Saccharomyces cerevisiae )
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Gene Conversion and Mitotic Recombination (Saccharomyces cerevisiae )
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Host-mediated Assay (mouse )
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,263,1971TRICHLOROETHYLENE• occupationally related - MSHA STANDARD-air (human TWA)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1985TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism ( Aspergillis nidulans )
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction ( Aspergillis nidulans )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1987TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction (hamster lng)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1988TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (Saccharomyces cerevisiae )
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction (Saccharomyces cerevisiae )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1991TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Phage Inhibition Capacity (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1994TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (rat ihl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1998TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (other fish mul)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (other fish mul)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1998TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (rat orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1998TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1985TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism ( Aspergillis nidulans )
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction ( Aspergillis nidulans )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1987TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction (hamster lng)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1988TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (Saccharomyces cerevisiae )
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction (Saccharomyces cerevisiae )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1991TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Phage Inhibition Capacity (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1994TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (rat ihl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1998TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (other fish mul)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (other fish mul)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1998TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (rat orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1998TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (mouse bmr)
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 5075TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: sperm (mouse ihl)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis ( human lng)
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (mouse bmr)
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 5075TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: sperm (mouse ihl)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis ( human lng)
RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 1988TRICHLOROETHYLENE• metabolic - Weight loss or decreased weight gain (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Neurotoxicology and Teratology 1990TRICHLOROETHYLENE• brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect - Demyelination (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994TRICHLOROETHYLENE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Construc) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994TRICHLOROETHYLENE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Fed Cont) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994TRICHLOROETHYLENE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Gen Indu) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993TRICHLOROETHYLENE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Shipyard) (human TWA)
RTECS®- Science 1987TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (mouse lym)
RTECS®- Science 1987TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (mouse lym)
RTECS®- Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 1987TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 1987TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Toxicologist 1984TRICHLOROETHYLENE• reproductive - Behavioral (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Toxicologist 1985TRICHLOROETHYLENE• kidney or renal system - Changes in bladder weight (rat TDLo)
• liver - Changes in liver weight (rat TDLo)
• biochemical - Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.) (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1982TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (rat orl)
RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1985TRICHLOROETHYLENE• liver - Changes in liver weight (rat TDLo)
• biochemical - Phosphatases (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1982TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (rat orl)
RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1982TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Adduct (mammal lym)
RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1986TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1982TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Adduct (mammal lym)
RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1986TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- Toxicology 2004TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (rat kdy)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (rat kdy)
RTECS®- Toxicology 1984TRICHLOROETHYLENE• reproductive - Weaning or lactation index (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Toxicology 2004TRICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (rat kdy)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (rat kdy)



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Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationDiPalma, J.A., J. Cunningham, J. Herrera, T. McCaffery, and D. Wolf. Occupational and Industrial Toxin Exposures and the Gastrointestinal Tract. American Journal of Gastroenterology. 86(9): 1107-1117. 1991. (Table 2: Selected Agents with Purported Digestive System Injury)., US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, LaDou, J. (ed.). Occupational Medicine. Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, CN. 1990., Malachowsky, M.J. Health Effects of Toxic Substances. Government Institutes. Rockville, MD 1995., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
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Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationFoth, H. Role of the Lung in Accumulation and Metabolism of Xenobiotic compounds - Implications for Chemically Induced Toxicity. Critical Reviews in Toxicology. 25(2): 165-205. 1995. (Table 1:Toxic Damage of Lung by Foreign Compounds)., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationKlaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996., LaDou, J. (ed.). Occupational Medicine. Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, CN. 1990., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationCalifornia EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J., Prague, Czechoslovakia, Avicenum, 1986 -,106,1986
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RTECS®- Anesthesiology 1975RTECS®- Anesthesiology. (Lippincott/Harper, Journal Fulfillment Dept., 2350 Virginia Ave., Hagerstown, MD 21740) V.1- 43,21,1975
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RTECS®- Annales de Genetique 1981RTECS®- Annales de Genetique. (Expansion Scientifique Francaise, 15 rue Saint-Benoit, F-75278, Paris Cedex 06, France) V.1- 1958- 24,105,1981
RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 1976RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 1974- 35,295,1976
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RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 1977RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 38,87,1977
RTECS®- Biochemical Pharmacology 1975RTECS®- Biochemical Pharmacology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1958- 24,2013,1975
RTECS®- Biochemical Pharmacology 1975RTECS®- Biochemical Pharmacology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 24,2013,1975
RTECS®- Brain Research 1989RTECS®- Brain Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- -1966 488,403,1989
RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland) 1981RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland). (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 13,213,1981
RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland) 1985RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland). (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 28,85,1985
RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland) 1981RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland). (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1975- 13,213,1981
RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland) 1985RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland). (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1975- 28,85,1985
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RTECS®- Cancer Research 1983RTECS®- Cancer Research. (Public Ledger Building, Suit 816, 6th & Chestnut Sts., Philadelphia, PA 19106) V.1- 43,1145,1983
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RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1984RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London). (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 1980- 5,1629,1984
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1983RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London). (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 4,291,1983
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1984RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London). (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 5,1629,1984
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RTECS®- EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives 2001RTECS®- EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) No.1- 1972- 109,71,2001
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RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2001RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 1987- 37,185,2001
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2004RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 1987- 44,329,2004
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1987RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 10(Suppl 10),1,1987
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RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2004RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 44,329,2004
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RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,263,1971RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,263,1971
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RTECS®- Mutation Research 1987RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 182,135,1987
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1988RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 206,209,1988
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1991RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 260,349,1991
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RTECS®- Mutation Research 1998RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 399,125,1998
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1998RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 413,1,1998
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RTECS®- Mutation Research 1987RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- -1964 182,135,1987
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1988RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- -1964 206,209,1988
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RTECS®- National Technical Information Service RTECS®- National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information. AD-A080-636
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 5075RTECS®- National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information. PB82-185075
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service RTECS®- National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information. AD-A080-636
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 5075RTECS®- National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information. PB82-185075
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RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204.50,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910.1000,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915.1000,1993
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RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1982RTECS®- Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 11,243,1982
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