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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Trichloroacetic acid


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Trichloroacetic acid is a disinfection byproduct regulated by EPA as one of five haloacetic acids that are formed when chlorine, chloramines or other disinfectants react with organic and inorganic matter in water.

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
36
30
25
Water utilities
10,691
2,605
373
People Served
123,329,241
39,064,851
4,368,226

Health Concerns for Trichloroacetic acid:


Trichloroacetic acid Exposure by State

Water utilities in 36 states have reported detecting Trichloroacetic acid in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Trichloroacetic acid contaminationWater suppliers reporting Trichloroacetic acid above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
New York1,00213,913,52927310,318,500
Texas1,60015,950,0144336,337,156
Maryland2094,907,602404,132,302
New Jersey2807,707,203523,069,948
North Carolina8376,724,9293323,041,471
Washington3583,585,905621,876,368
Arkansas5152,642,8711931,605,315
Ohio5098,665,2951081,406,001
Virginia3743,088,0061981,077,896
Arizona521,679,79113861,092
Illinois1,00111,349,818182853,141
Utah1102,862,47923803,702
California34610,139,27288548,893
Florida50910,040,45191477,524
Missouri4312,141,825135436,458
Montana136462,04634332,719
Iowa6362,142,76054293,826
Michigan2294,038,18727269,646
Maine73362,18848207,343
Idaho3193,2402191,130
New Mexico117920,43716170,662
Vermont108206,22152142,904
Alaska150476,27467136,822
Delaware79722,82212133,997
Minnesota5013,507,52639118,198
Wisconsin3712,793,991995,698
South Carolina7437,770381,833
Nebraska68955,266424,589
North Dakota48138,8261417,217
Rhode Island659,11512,500
Nevada6262,16300
Hawaii15168,78600
Connecticut142,00000
Colorado129,50000
Oregon19,10800
Wyoming22,02500
Total10,691123,329,2412,60539,064,851

The Most Polluted Communities

10,691 water utilities reported detecting Trichloroacetic acid in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Trichloroacetic acid level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Bass Capital Mhp
Crescent City, FL
991 of 1168 ppb
(168 ppb)
2Everglades City
Everglades City, FL
2,5001 of 1130 ppb
(130 ppb)
3Thorne Bay
Thorne Bay, AK
95719 of 19120.79 ppb
(3.7 to 172 ppb)
4Lake Manor Mhp
Jensen Beach, FL
1002 of 2119.7 ppb
(84.4 to 155 ppb)
5Gulkana Village
Gakona, AK
8312 of 13111.75 ppb
(0 to 176 ppb)
6River Grove Mobile Home Village
Micco, FL
4321 of 1110 ppb
(110 ppb)
7Spanish Lakes Country Club Village
Fort Pierce, FL
2,3312 of 2102.3 ppb
(74.6 to 130 ppb)
8Blue Cypress Golf & RV Park
Okeechobee, FL
4181 of 187.4 ppb
(87.4 ppb)
9Hidden Acres Estates
Lorida, FL
1462 of 287.05 ppb
(86 to 88.1 ppb)
10Panther Woods Country Club
Fort Pierce, FL
6501 of 185.8 ppb
(85.8 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Trichloroacetic acid

StandardDescriptionLevel
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.20 ppb
Lifetime health-based limit, non-cancer riskConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for a lifetime of exposure. The Lifetime health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is based on exposure for a a 70-kg adult consuming 2 liters of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.20 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.60 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.1000 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.3000 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.3000 ppb

Testing Summary for Trichloroacetic acid

Are tests routinely required for Trichloroacetic acid by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for Trichloroacetic acid (2004-2009):22,527 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.8 per year

Violation Summary for Trichloroacetic acid

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for Trichloroacetic acid since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations1
Monitoring Violations6
Reporting Violations0

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Cancer - limited evidence US EPA, National Center for Environmental Assessment, 2004
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1987
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland) 2002
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicologist 2006
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2006
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Canadian Journal of Genetics and Cytology 1980
One or more in vitro tests on microorganisms show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1996
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Classified as a high human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at very low doses RTECS®- U 1715
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of skin irritation National Library of Medicine HazMap
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at moderate doses RTECS®- U 1715

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Miscellaneous

Type of concern: Reference:
Occupational hazards related to handling European Union - Classification & Labelling

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be persistent Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingTRICHLOROACETIC ACID•Corrosive
•Causes severe burns
•Dangerous for the environment
•Very toxic to aquatic organisms
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensTRICHLOROACETIC ACID•Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans (ACGIH classification A3)
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsTRICHLOROACETIC ACID• o
Canada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics IngredientsTRICHLOROACETIC ACID•Prohibited from use in Canadian cosmetics
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListACETIC ACID, TRICHLORO-•This chemical was deemed a high human health priority even though it did not meet the strict criteria of the categorization exercise of CEPA. The chemical was flagged for suspected carcinogenic concerns.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)TRICHLOROACETIC ACID•Group C: Possible human carcinogen (EPA classification)
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsTRICHLOROACETIC ACID•Prohibited in EU cosmetics: must not form part of the composition of cosmetic products
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsTRICHLOROACETIC ACID•Prohibited in EU cosmetics: must not form part of the composition of cosmetic products
National Library of Medicine HazMapTRICHLOROACETIC ACID•Dermatotoxin: Skin Burns;
•Toxic Pneumonitis: Yes;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 1 ppm;
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensTRICHLOROACETIC ACID•IARC Group 3 (no cancer link)
US EPA, National Center for Environmental Assessment, 2004TRICHLOROACETIC ACID•Cancer hazards: suspected
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007TRICHLOROACETIC ACID• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- Canadian Journal of Genetics and Cytology 1980TRICHLOROACETIC ACID• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland) 2002TRICHLOROACETIC ACID• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Adduct (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1987TRICHLOROACETIC ACID• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (mouse ipr)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (mouse ipr)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: sperm (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995TRICHLOROACETIC ACID• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1996TRICHLOROACETIC ACID• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (chicken ipr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2006TRICHLOROACETIC ACID• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: (mouse lvr)
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2006TRICHLOROACETIC ACID• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (mouse orl)
RTECS®- U 1715TRICHLOROACETIC ACID• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) 2008. ACGIH cancer classification system. www.acgih.org.
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
Canada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics IngredientsHealth Canada. 2007. List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients. Canada's Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist. March 2007.
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsEC (European Commission of the European Union). 1999-2006. Enterprise Directorate-General Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetics. The rules governing cosmetic products in the European Union, Volume 1, "Cosmetics legislation."
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, National Center for Environmental Assessment. Integrated Risk Information System. http://www.epa.gov/iriswebp/iris/index.html, Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.-CAND
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- Canadian Journal of Genetics and Cytology 1980RTECS®- Canadian Journal of Genetics and Cytology. (National Research Council of Canada, Publication Sales and Distribution, Ottawa ON K1A OR6, Canada) V.1- 22,35,1980
RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland) 2002RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland). (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 185,13,2002
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1987RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 188,215,1987
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 343,157,1995
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1996RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 367,253,1996
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2006RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 608,29,2006
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2006RTECS®- Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981- 90,101,2006
RTECS®- U 1715RTECS®- U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, University of Rochester, Research and Development Reports. (Rochester, NY) MDDC-1715

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