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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Toxaphene


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Toxaphene is a highly toxic, persistent and bioaccumulative insecticide anticipated to be carcinogenic to people, and banned from use in the U.S. in 1990. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
8
8
1
Water utilities
26
26
1
People Served
302,212
302,212
305

Health Concerns for Toxaphene:


Toxaphene Exposure by State

Water utilities in 8 states have reported detecting Toxaphene in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Toxaphene contaminationWater suppliers reporting Toxaphene above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
Delaware1201,0001201,000
Connecticut1545,7061545,706
Kentucky134,650134,650
Florida29,52629,526
Massachusetts15,80015,800
Arkansas13,01413,014
New York21,31721,317
North Carolina31,19931,199
Total26302,21226302,212

The Most Polluted Communities

26 water utilities reported detecting Toxaphene in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Toxaphene level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Neuse Woods MH S/D
Raleigh, NC
30516 of 192.66 ppb
(0 to 4.5 ppb)
2Middlebury Terrace Water Supply
Naugatuck, CT
401 of 12 ppb
(2 ppb)
3CTWC - Shoreline Reg-Bay Mountain
Danielson, CT
4401 of 21 ppb
(0 to 2 ppb)
4Waterford Country School, Inc.
Clinton, CT
1801 of 21 ppb
(0 to 2 ppb)
5Foxridge Apartments-Well 1
Cheshire, CT
251 of 21 ppb
(0 to 2 ppb)
6Foxridge Apartments-Well 2
Cheshire, CT
251 of 21 ppb
(0 to 2 ppb)
7Heritage Cove Condominiums
Old Saybrook, CT
2081 of 21 ppb
(0 to 2 ppb)
8Hill Hollow Association
Middletown, CT
481 of 21 ppb
(0 to 2 ppb)
9Durham Lexington Place Division
Durham, CT
451 of 21 ppb
(0 to 2 ppb)
10Durham Elderly Housing Division
Durham, CT
501 of 21 ppb
(0 to 2 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Toxaphene

StandardDescriptionLevel
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0 ppb
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.<0.01 ppb
California Public Health GoalsDefined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.0.03 ppb
One in one million (10-6) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.03 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.3 ppb
One in ten thousand (10-4) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 10,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.3 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.4 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.4 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.10 ppb

Testing Summary for Toxaphene

Are tests routinely required for Toxaphene by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for Toxaphene (2004-2009):18,367 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.4 per year

Violation Summary for Toxaphene

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for Toxaphene since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations0
Monitoring Violations1,709
Reporting Violations0

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Strong evidence of human neurotoxicity Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Possible human carcinogen NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th Edition
Possible human carcinogen California EPA Proposition 65
Cancer - strong evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens
Cancer - limited evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 1983
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1985
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1990
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicology 2004
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1986
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Science 1979
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1987
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2000
One or more in vitro tests on microorganisms show positive mutation results RTECS®- Biologisches Zentralblatt 1975

Endocrine disruption

Type of concern: Reference:
Human disruptor - strong evidence European Commission on Endocrine Disruption
Limited evidence of wildlife and the environment disruption European Commission on Endocrine Disruption
Limited evidence of endocrine disruption BKH/European Commission, 2000
endocrine - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System
endocrine - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study Our Stolen Future Endocrine Disruptors

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human lung and skin toxicant European Union - Classification & Labelling
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
Classified as toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) National Library of Medicine HazMap

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife and humans National Library of Medicine HazMap
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife and humans United Nations Environment Programme/POPs Treaty
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife and humans EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife National Library of Medicine HazMap
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTs
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible Concern

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Human reproductive toxicant - moderate evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Human nervous system toxicant - moderate evidence Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity US EPA, 9204
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity US EPA, 9204

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
Classified as irritant European Union - Classification & Labelling
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at low doses RTECS®- JAMA, Journal of the American Medical Association 1952

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Wildlife and environmental toxicity Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System

Multiple, additive exposure sources

Type of concern: Reference:
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food FDA Food Additive Status



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingTOXAPHENE•Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
•Toxic
•Toxic if swallowed
•Harmful
•Harmful in contact with skin
•Irritant (eyes, skin, or lungs)
•Irritating to respiratory system and skin
•Dangerous for the environment
•Very toxic to aquatic organisms
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensCHLORINATED CAMPHENE•Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans (ACGIH classification A3)
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensTOXAPHENE (POLYCHLORINATED CAMPHENES)•Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans (ACGIH classification A3)
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsCAMPHECHLOR•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine SystemTOXAPHENE•EPA: known endocrine disruptor
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsTOXAPHENE•Prohibited in EU cosmetics: must not form part of the composition of cosmetic products
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsTOXAPHENE (CHLORINATED CAMPHENE)•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensTOXAPHENE (POLYCHLORINATED CAMPHENES)•IARC Group 2B: possible human carcinogen (International Agency for Research on Carcinogens)
National Library of Medicine HazMapTOXAPHENE•Skin Designation (ACGIH) - Danger of cutaneous absorption (ACGIH): Yes;
•Restricted - Regulations that have banned or restricted the use of the agent: All U.S. registrations cancelled; [EPA Pesticides, p. 56];
•Hepatotoxin: Hepatotoxin, Secondary;
•PEL (OSHA) - Permissible exposure limit (OSHA): 0.5 mg/m3;
•STEL (ACGIH) - Short-term exposure limits (ACGIH): 1 mg/m3;
•Bioaccumulates: Yes;
•Other Poison: Organochlorine Pesticide;
•IARC Carcinogen - International Agency for Research on Cancer; classifies chemicals as established (1), probable (2a), or possible (2b) human carcinogens: Possible Carcinogen;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 0.5 mg/m3;
•IDLH (NIOSH) - Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health: 200 mg/m3;
Aarhus Protocol on Persistent Organic PollutantsTOXAPHENEBanned under the Aahrus Protocol for Persistent Organic Pollutants
Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTsTOXAPHENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Great Lakes Binational Strategy, Tier 1 concern (highest), targeted for phase-out
OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible ConcernTOXAPHENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Oslo-Paris (OSPAR) Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic, chemical of concern
United Nations Environment Programme/POPs TreatyTOXAPHENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - targeted for ban under international treaty (Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, or POPs Convention)
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsTOXAPHENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - targeted for waste reporting under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)TOXAPHENE•Group B2: Probable human carcinogen - sufficient data in animals (EPA classification)
NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th EditionTOXAPHENE•Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen (National Toxicology Program classification)
Our Stolen Future Endocrine DisruptorsTOXAPHENE
California EPA Proposition 65TOXAPHENE (POLYCHLORINATED CAMPHENES)•Carcinogen: California Proposition 65
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004CAMPHECHLOR•Gastrointestinal or liver toxicity hazards: suspected
BKH/European Commission, 2000CAMPHECHLOR•Endocrine toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support CenterCAMPHECHLOR•Respiratory toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, 9204CAMPHECHLOR•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, 9204CAMPHECHLOR•Developmental toxicity hazards: suspected
Proposition 65 List of CarcinogensCAMPHECHLOR•Cancer hazards: recognized
FDA Food Additive StatusTOXAPHENE• PEST
• Food additive: food additive for which a petition has been filed and a regulation issued
• 6 parts per million - In or on crude soybean oil from use on growing crop as residue - 40 Code of Federal Regulations 193.450
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionTOXAPHENE = CAMPHECHLORHH-CAT1;WF-CAT2
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007TOXAPHENE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 1983TOXAPHENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange ( human lym)
RTECS®- Biologisches Zentralblatt 1975TOXAPHENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (other fish mul)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2000TOXAPHENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Phage Inhibition Capacity (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1986TOXAPHENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- JAMA, Journal of the American Medical Association 1952TOXAPHENE• skin - Primary skin irritant (mammal )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1987TOXAPHENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Phage Inhibition Capacity (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1990TOXAPHENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (hamster lng)
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1985TOXAPHENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (mouse emb)
RTECS®- Science 1979TOXAPHENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Toxicology 2004TOXAPHENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test ( human lvr)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) 2008. ACGIH cancer classification system. www.acgih.org.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine SystemIllinois EPA (Illinois Environmental Protection Agency). 2000. Preliminary list of chemicals associated with endocrine system effects in animals and humans (*) or in vitro (+). In EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) 2000. Handbook for Non-Cancer Health Effects Valuation, Appendix C.
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsEC (European Commission of the European Union). 1999-2006. Enterprise Directorate-General Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetics. The rules governing cosmetic products in the European Union, Volume 1, "Cosmetics legislation."
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Aarhus Protocol on Persistent Organic PollutantsAarhus LRTAP. 1998. Aarhus Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Geneva Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, United Nations Environment Program.
Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTsGreat Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy). 1997. Canada-United States Strategy for the Virtual Elimination of Persistent Toxic Substances in the Great Lakes. Appendix I - Level 1 and Level 2 substances.
OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible ConcernOSPAR (Oslo-Paris). 2002. OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR. Place Published, OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environement of North-East Atlanic.
United Nations Environment Programme/POPs TreatyUNEP (United Nations Environment Programme). 2001. Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) — POPs Treaty.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th EditionNTP (National Toxicology Program). 2005. Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.
Our Stolen Future Endocrine DisruptorsColborn T, D Dumanoski, JP Myers. 2006. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. Updated from original listing in "Our Stolen Future" (1996).
California EPA Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationBKH/European Commission. Towards the establishment of a priority list of substances for further evaluation of their role in endocrine disruption: - preparation of a candidate list of substances as a basis for priority setting. Final report-November 2000. http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/docum/01262_en.htm#bkh. Category 1 chemicals from Annex 1: Candidate list of 553 substances. http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/docum/bkh_annex_01.pdf, Guillette, L. J., and E. Guillette. Environmental Contaminants and Reproductive Abnormalities in Wildlife: Implications for Public Health? Toxicology and Industrial Health. 12(3): 537-550. 1996., Illinois EPA. Endocrine Disruptors Strategy. 1997. (Table 1: Preliminary List of Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System Effects in Animals and Humans or In Vitro). http://www.nihs.go.jp/hse/environ/illiepatable.htm, Japanese National Institute of Health Sciences. Lists of Paradigmatic Chemicals. http://www.nihs.go.jp/hse/endocrine-e/paradigm/paradigm.html, Keith, L.H. (ed.). Environmental Endocrine Disruptors. John Wiley & Sons, NY. 1997. http://www.wileyeurope.com/cda/product/0,,0471191450%7Cdesc%7C3037,00.html, World Wildlife Fund. Our Stolen Future. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Basics/chemlist.htm. The WWF list is derived from references detailed at http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Sources/chemsources.htm and was originally published in: Colborn, T., F.S. vom Saal, and A.M. Soto. Developmental Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals In Wildlife and Humans. Environmental Health Perspectives 101(5): 378-384. 1993.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA. Roadmaps to Sources of Information on Chemicals Listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-to-Know Act (Also Known as SARA Title 3), Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory (for Microcomputers). (Report Number EPADFDK92040). 1991. Data file distributed in 2 diskettes by Office of Pollution, Prevention, and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. NOTE: Datasource no longer being maintained by EPA; not currently available online.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA. Roadmaps to Sources of Information on Chemicals Listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-to-Know Act (Also Known as SARA Title 3), Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory (for Microcomputers). (Report Number EPADFDK92040). 1991. Data file distributed in 2 diskettes by Office of Pollution, Prevention, and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. NOTE: Datasource no longer being maintained by EPA; not currently available online., Jankovic, J. A Screening Method for Occupational Reproductive Health Risk. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. 57: 641-649. 1996.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
FDA Food Additive StatusFDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionEU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 1983RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 52,221,1983
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RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2000RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 36,206,2000
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1986RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis. (New York, NY) V.1-9, 1979-87. For publisher information, see EMMUEG. 8(Suppl 7),1,1986
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