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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Total haloacetic acids (HAAs)


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Total haloacetic acids refers to the sum of the concentrations of five related disinfection byproducts in a water sample: dichloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, monochloroacetic acid, monobromoacetic acid and dibromoacetic acid. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
43
43
38
Water utilities
17,956
17,547
2,411
People Served
208,087,771
205,677,872
33,251,759

Total haloacetic acids (HAAs) Exposure by State

Water utilities in 43 states have reported detecting Total haloacetic acids (HAAs) in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Total haloacetic acids (HAAs) contaminationWater suppliers reporting Total haloacetic acids (HAAs) above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
California42234,007,09141833,966,183
Florida1,55118,233,8421,53018,190,845
Texas1,73916,000,2651,71015,878,134
New York1,31615,499,6641,30115,437,803
Illinois1,34512,319,9061,34512,319,906
Pennsylvania1,24110,449,3971,21210,398,523
Ohio1,0849,972,7731,0839,972,173
New Jersey3668,226,5583498,043,325
North Carolina1,1257,009,0811,0996,954,251
Virginia4946,676,9414896,668,931
Massachusetts2326,493,1002296,426,900
Michigan2985,090,5002935,021,919
Maryland2515,020,6232325,013,963
Indiana5394,441,5575394,441,557
Arizona1864,361,8921754,281,536
Washington5023,887,9014713,822,524
Alabama2434,001,5662153,785,786
Kentucky2113,616,7112113,616,711
Utah1643,373,4471593,309,597
Wisconsin4783,442,3824213,059,332
Missouri4183,034,8194113,030,354
Oklahoma6002,881,3756002,881,375
Arkansas6622,869,2746622,869,274
Oregon3572,857,4943522,837,289
Iowa4552,106,5014542,079,000
Nevada142,071,848122,051,313
New Mexico2691,284,4952371,243,482
Nebraska1081,028,320961,013,227
Delaware115846,593115846,593
Rhode Island20784,83620784,836
South Carolina62672,30861669,001
District of Columbia1581,5301581,530
Idaho149644,199142571,327
Montana214568,674192553,372
Alaska177499,071177499,071
North Dakota146450,529146450,529
Connecticut2431,3002431,300
Minnesota1414,7351414,735
Maine86376,53586376,535
Wyoming141373,607130370,181
Hawaii50937,25647266,374
Vermont113214,812113214,812
South Dakota932,463932,463
Total17,956208,087,77117,547205,677,872

The Most Polluted Communities

17,956 water utilities reported detecting Total haloacetic acids (HAAs) in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Total haloacetic acids (HAAs) level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Duchess Creek Mhp
Checotah, OK
1401 of 1168.12 ppb
(168.12 ppb)
2Gulkana Village
Gakona, AK
836 of 6161.67 ppb
(125 to 180 ppb)
3Kusa Rwd #3
Henryetta, OK
2101 of 1158 ppb
(158 ppb)
4Lake Caroline Wtp
Ruther Glen, VA
3,37013 of 13137.74 ppb
(1.6 to 180 ppb)
5LL Association Inc
Checotah, OK
2001 of 1137 ppb
(137 ppb)
6Glencoe
Glencoe, OK
4781 of 1132.03 ppb
(132.03 ppb)
7Thorne Bay
Thorne Bay, AK
95712 of 12129.64 ppb
(4.7 to 176 ppb)
8Conners Correctional Center
Hominy, OK
1,0502 of 2128.6 ppb
(121.39 to 135.82 ppb)
9Jones' Trailer Park
Miami, FL
1208 of 8127.68 ppb
(10.81 to 180 ppb)
10Deerfield
Deerfield, MI
1,0066 of 6124.85 ppb
(61.67 to 171.75 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Total haloacetic acids (HAAs)

StandardDescriptionLevel
One in one million (10-6) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.7 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.60 ppb
One in ten thousand (10-4) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 10,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.70 ppb
Lifetime health-based limit, non-cancer riskConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for a lifetime of exposure. The Lifetime health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is based on exposure for a a 70-kg adult consuming 2 liters of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.70 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.450 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.5200 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.5200 ppb

Testing Summary for Total haloacetic acids (HAAs)

Are tests routinely required for Total haloacetic acids (HAAs) by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for Total haloacetic acids (HAAs) (2004-2009):27,425 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.9 per year

Violation Summary for Total haloacetic acids (HAAs)

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for Total haloacetic acids (HAAs) since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations6,001
Monitoring Violations0
Reporting Violations0