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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Toluene


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Toluene is a pollutant from petroleum refineries and a chemical used in plastics manufacturing as well as the pharmaceutical, paint and furniture industries. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
40
-
-
Water utilities
1,489
-
-
People Served
15,434,395
-
-

Health Concerns for Toluene:


Toluene Exposure by State

Water utilities in 40 states have reported detecting Toluene in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Toluene contamination
SystemsPopulation
Texas1613,387,545
Florida441,830,863
California991,794,733
New Jersey381,332,434
Pennsylvania1051,257,617
Wisconsin201996,684
Minnesota63829,721
Washington43593,463
Illinois41378,580
Delaware24326,133
Maryland13300,061
Iowa46293,231
Rhode Island13284,131
Massachusetts25225,199
Missouri50212,992
North Carolina65183,587
Alabama9143,627
Ohio31138,492
New York51134,112
Oklahoma27125,975
Nebraska21112,894
Virginia6899,605
New Mexico1992,316
Arizona1369,835
Oregon1844,619
Kentucky137,043
Michigan932,177
New Hampshire8029,658
Hawaii127,642
Arkansas1524,656
Alaska2320,679
Idaho717,036
Maine912,279
Montana2010,800
Nevada49,584
Vermont139,144
Connecticut98,629
Indiana54,838
Utah41,450
Wyoming1331
Total1,48915,434,395

The Most Polluted Communities

1,489 water utilities reported detecting Toluene in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Toluene level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Northernaire ON Deer Lake Condominiums
Three Lakes, WI
3001 of 214.5 ppb
(0 to 29 ppb)
2City of Clarksville City
Gladewater, TX
9541 of 114.05 ppb
(14.05 ppb)
3Alto Alps Homeowners Association
Alto, NM
2001 of 311.87 ppb
(0 to 35.6 ppb)
4Seafair Road and Water Company
Mendocino, CA
501 of 611.33 ppb
(0 to 68 ppb)
5Lakeland Mgt Co
Belmont, NH
3081 of 710.86 ppb
(0 to 76 ppb)
6Heron Bay
DE
5501 of 310.53 ppb
(0 to 31.6 ppb)
7Sterett Creek Village
MO
2501 of 310.27 ppb
(0 to 30.8 ppb)
8Dover Water Department
Dover, DE
38,0001 of 88.91 ppb
(0 to 71.3 ppb)
9River Pines Pud
River Pines, CA
5004 of 98.27 ppb
(0 to 71 ppb)
10Martell Mobile Manor
Port Orchard, WA
1431 of 18.04 ppb
(8.04 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Toluene

StandardDescriptionLevel
California Public Health GoalsDefined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.150 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.1000 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.1000 ppb
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.1300 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.2000 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.7000 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.20000 ppb

Testing Summary for Toluene

Are tests routinely required for Toluene by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for Toluene (2004-2009):33,973 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.6 per year

Violation Summary for Toluene

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for Toluene since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations0
Monitoring Violations4,327
Reporting Violations0

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human developmental toxicant California EPA Proposition 65
Human developmental toxicant - strong evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity US EPA, 9204
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Pediatric Research 1994
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 1998

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at very low doses RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
One or more animal studies show broad systemic effects at low doses RTECS®- Gekkan Yakuji 1980
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 1991
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 2000
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicity Klaassen, C, 1996
Limited evidence of kidney toxicity Klaassen, C, 1996
One or more animal studies show effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide Ingredients
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Union Carbide Data Sheet 1970
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 1982
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Neurotoxicology and Teratology 1989
One or more animal studies show metabolic effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Neurotoxicology and Teratology 1989
One or more animal studies show kidney or renal system effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Toxicologist 1985
One or more animal studies show liver effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 1990
One or more animal studies show kidney or renal system effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 1990
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 1943
reproductive - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study National Library of Medicine HazMap
Classified as a low human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies nternational Programme of Chemical Safety Environmental Health Criteria 180, 1996

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Persistent or bioaccumulative and moderate to high toxicity concern in humans Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,29,1973
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
Classified as skin irritant European Union - Classification & Labelling
Human irritant - strong evidence Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at low doses RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 1982
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at low doses RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at moderate doses RTECS®- Union Carbide Data Sheet 1970
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at moderate doses RTECS®- Toxicology 2001

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Personal Communication from J 1982
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya 1981
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Gigiena i Sanitariya 1972
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1985
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 1985
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2002
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2006
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Journal of Bacteriology 1979
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Journal of Virology 1973
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Contaminacion Ambiental 1985
One or more in vitro tests on microorganisms show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1983
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect effects at high doses RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 1990
nervous system - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study National Library of Medicine HazMap

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Suspected to be an environmental toxin and be persistent or bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Miscellaneous

Type of concern: Reference:
Occupational hazards related to handling European Union - Classification & Labelling



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingTOLUENE•Highly flammable
•Highly flammable
•Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation
•Irritating to skin
•Vapours may cause drowsiness and dizziness
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsTOLUENE• S
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsTOLUENE• S
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsTOLUENE• S
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsTOLUENE• S
Cosmetic Ingredient Review AssessmentsTOLUENE•Safe as used in cosmetics according to industry panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR)
•Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in product
•Restrictions on impurities recommended by industry safety panel
•May contain harmful impurities

•Determined safe for use in cosmetics based on assumption of low absorption through skin
•Irritation (eyes, skin, or lungs)
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsTOLUENE•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListBENZENE, METHYL-•This chemical was flagged for further attention by CEPA due to suspected aquatic toxicity and persistence. The chemical was also flagged as a low human health priority.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)TOLUENE•Group D: Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity (EPA classification)
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsTOLUENE•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMapTOLUENE•Skin Designation (ACGIH) - Danger of cutaneous absorption (ACGIH): Yes;
•Reproductive Toxin - A chemical that is toxic to the reproductive system, including defects in the progeny and injury to male and female reproductive function: Yes;
•Hepatotoxin: Hepatotoxin, Secondary;
•Neurotoxin: CNS Solvent Syndrome;
•PEL (OSHA) - Permissible exposure limit (OSHA): 200 ppm, Ceiling(OSHA) = 300 ppm(500 ppm for 10-min peak per 8-hr shift);
•RD50 - Concentration producing a 50% decrease in respiratory rate in experimental animals following a 10-minute exposure: 5300 ppm;
•LC50 - Lethal concentration in 50% of animals tested: 33375 ppm;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 50 ppm;
•BEI - Biological Exposure Indices (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygiene, ACGIH): o-Cresol in urine = 0.5 mg/L; hippuric acid in urine = 1.6 g/g creat
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensTOLUENE•IARC Group 3 (no cancer link)
International Fragrance Association Codes & StandardsTOLUENE•Fragrance unsafe for use in cosmetics
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsTOLUENE•Pesticide inerts: potentially toxic, testing priority, according to EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsMETHYLBENZENE•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
California EPA Proposition 65TOLUENE•Developmental toxin: California Proposition 65
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 1991TOLUENE•Respiratory toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 2000TOLUENE•Skin or sense organ toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, 9204TOLUENE•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
nternational Programme of Chemical Safety Environmental Health Criteria 180, 1996TOLUENE•Immunotoxicity hazards: suspected
Klaassen, C, 1996TOLUENE•Cardiovascular or blood toxicity hazards: suspected
Klaassen, C, 1996TOLUENE•Kidney toxicity hazards: suspected
Proposition 65 List of CarcinogensTOLUENE•Developmental toxicity hazards: recognized
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005TOLUENE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006TOLUENE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007TOLUENE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986TOLUENE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 1985TOLUENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 1985TOLUENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- Contaminacion Ambiental 1985TOLUENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction (Drosophila melanogaster orl)
RTECS®- Contaminacion Ambiental 1985TOLUENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction (Drosophila melanogaster orl)
RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 1982TOLUENE• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 1982TOLUENE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 1982TOLUENE• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 1982TOLUENE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Gekkan Yakuji 1980TOLUENE• broad systemic - Broad systemic toxicity ( human LDLo)
RTECS®- Gigiena i Sanitariya 1972TOLUENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (rat scu)
RTECS®- Gigiena i Sanitariya 1972TOLUENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (rat scu)
RTECS®- Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya 1981TOLUENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (rat ihl)
RTECS®- Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya 1981TOLUENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (rat ihl)
RTECS®- Journal of Bacteriology 1979TOLUENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Journal of Bacteriology 1979TOLUENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 1943TOLUENE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant ( human )
RTECS®- Journal of Virology 1973TOLUENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (other micro-organisms )
RTECS®- Journal of Virology 1973TOLUENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (other micro-organisms )
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,29,1973TOLUENE• occupationally related - MSHA STANDARD-air (human TWA)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1983TOLUENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (grasshopper ihl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1985TOLUENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2002TOLUENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange ( human ihl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2006TOLUENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: (mouse lvr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1983TOLUENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (grasshopper ihl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1985TOLUENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2002TOLUENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange ( human ihl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2006TOLUENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: (mouse lvr)
RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 1990TOLUENE• kidney or renal system - Changes in bladder weight (rat TDLo)
• brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect - Changes in brain weight (rat TDLo)
• liver - Changes in liver weight (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Neurotoxicology and Teratology 1989TOLUENE• metabolic - Weight loss or decreased weight gain (rat TDLo)
• sense organ - Changes in cochlear structure or function (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994TOLUENE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Construc) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994TOLUENE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Fed Cont) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994TOLUENE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Gen Indu) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993TOLUENE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Shipyard) (human TWA)
RTECS®- Pediatric Research 1994TOLUENE• reproductive - Fetotoxicity (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Personal Communication from J 1982TOLUENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (rat lvr)
RTECS®- Personal Communication from J 1982TOLUENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (rat lvr)
RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 1998TOLUENE• reproductive - Growth statistics (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Toxicologist 1985TOLUENE• kidney or renal system - Other changes in urine composition (rat TDLo)
• kidney or renal system - Proteinuria (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Toxicology 2001TOLUENE• skin - Primary skin irritant (pig )
RTECS®- Toxicology 2001TOLUENE• skin - Primary skin irritant (pig )
RTECS®- Union Carbide Data Sheet 1970TOLUENE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
Cosmetic Ingredient Review AssessmentsCIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
International Fragrance Association Codes & StandardsIFRA (International Fragrance Association). 2006. Codes and Standards.
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1987 & 2005. Office of Pesticide Programs. Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients in Pesticide Products - Categorized List of Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
California EPA Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, Lu, F.C. Basic Toxicology. 2nd Edition. 1991., California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Acute Reference Exposure Levels (RELs), Averaging Times, and Toxicologic Endpoints. Includes all Acute Reference Exposure Levels (ARELs) developed by OEHHA through May 2000http://www.oehha.org/air/acute_rels/allAcRELs.html, California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Acute Reference Exposure Levels (RELs), Averaging Times, and Toxicologic Endpoints. Includes all Acute Reference Exposure Levels (ARELs) developed by OEHHA through May 2000http://www.oehha.org/air/acute_rels/allAcRELs.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA. Roadmaps to Sources of Information on Chemicals Listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-to-Know Act (Also Known as SARA Title 3), Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory (for Microcomputers). (Report Number EPADFDK92040). 1991. Data file distributed in 2 diskettes by Office of Pollution, Prevention, and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. NOTE: Datasource no longer being maintained by EPA; not currently available online., Frazier , L. and M. L. Hage (eds.). Reproductive Hazards of the Workplace, Wiley Europe, 1998. Table 10 (Partial List of Reproductive Toxicants) available at http://www.pharmacy.ohio-state.edu/homepage/safety/chemhygiene_table_repro.pdf.
Scorecard.org Toxicity Informationnternational Programme of Chemical Safety Environmental Health Criteria 180. Principles and Methods for Assessing Direct Immunotoxicity Associated with Exposure to Chemicals. World Health Organization. Geneva, 1996. (Table 1: Examples of compounds that are immunotoxic for humans or rodents).
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationKlaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationKlaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation., Stacey, N.H. Occupational Toxicology. Taylor & Francis. 1995.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J., Prague, Czechoslovakia, Avicenum, 1986 -,29,1986
RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 1985RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 1974- 58,106,1985
RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 1985RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 58,106,1985
RTECS®- Contaminacion Ambiental 1985RTECS®- Contaminacion Ambiental. (Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 Mexico City, Mexico) V.1- 1985- 1,35,1985
RTECS®- Contaminacion Ambiental 1985RTECS®- Contaminacion Ambiental. (Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 Mexico City, Mexico) V.1- 1,35,1985
RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 1982RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 20,563,1982
RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 1982RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 20,573,1982
RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 1982RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 1982- 20,563,1982
RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 1982RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 1982- 20,573,1982
RTECS®- Gekkan Yakuji 1980RTECS®- Gekkan Yakuji. Pharmaceuticals Monthly. (Yakugyo Jihosha, Inaoka Bldg., 2-36 Jinbo-cho, Kanda, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101, Japan) V.1- 1959- 22,883,1980
RTECS®- Gigiena i Sanitariya 1972RTECS®- Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1936- 37(10),36,1972
RTECS®- Gigiena i Sanitariya 1972RTECS®- Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 37(10),36,1972
RTECS®- Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya 1981RTECS®- Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1-36, 1957-1992. For publisher information, see MTPEEI 25(7),33,1981
RTECS®- Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya 1981RTECS®- Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1-36, 1957-1992. For publisher information, see MTPEEI 25(7),33,1981
RTECS®- Journal of Bacteriology 1979RTECS®- Journal of Bacteriology. (American Soc. for Microbiology, 1913 I St., NW, Washington, DC 20006) V.1- 1916- 137,397,1979
RTECS®- Journal of Bacteriology 1979RTECS®- Journal of Bacteriology. (American Soc. for Microbiology, 1913 I St., NW, Washington, DC 20006) V.1- 137,397,1979
RTECS®- Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 1943RTECS®- Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. (Cambridge, MA) V.18-31, 1936-49. For publisher information, see AEHLAU. 25,282,1943
RTECS®- Journal of Virology 1973RTECS®- Journal of Virology. (American Soc. for Microbiology, 1913 I St., NW, Washington, DC 20006) V.1- 12,1195,1973
RTECS®- Journal of Virology 1973RTECS®- Journal of Virology. (American Soc. for Microbiology, 1913 I St., NW, Washington, DC 20006) V.1- 1967- 12,1195,1973
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,29,1973RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,29,1973
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1983RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 113,467,1983
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1985RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 147,294,1985
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2002RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 519,171,2002
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2006RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 608,29,2006
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1983RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- -1964 113,467,1983
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1985RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- -1964 147,294,1985
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2002RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- -1964 519,171,2002
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2006RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- -1964 608,29,2006
RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 1990RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series. (Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) No.206- NTP-TR-371,1990
RTECS®- Neurotoxicology and Teratology 1989RTECS®- Neurotoxicology and Teratology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.9- 1987- 10,525,1989
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926.55,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204.50,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910.1000,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915.1000,1993
RTECS®- Pediatric Research 1994RTECS®- Pediatric Research. (Williams & Wilkins Co., 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- -1967 36,811,1994
RTECS®- Personal Communication from J 1982RTECS®- Personal Communication from J.F. Sina, Merck Institute for Therapeutic Research, West Point, PA 19486, Oct. 26, 1982 26OCT1982
RTECS®- Personal Communication from J 1982RTECS®- Personal Communication from J.F. Sina, Merck Institute for Therapeutic Research, West Point, PA 19486, Oct. 26, 1982 26OCT1982
RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 1998RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1987- 12,119,1998
RTECS®- Toxicologist 1985RTECS®- Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- -1981 5,62,1985
RTECS®- Toxicology 2001RTECS®- Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1973- 161,1,2001
RTECS®- Toxicology 2001RTECS®- Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 161,1,2001
RTECS®- Union Carbide Data Sheet 1970RTECS®- Union Carbide Data Sheet. (Union Carbide Corp., 39 Old Ridgebury Rd., Danbury, CT 06817) 7/23/1970

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