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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Thallium (total)


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Thallium is a highly toxic metal that contaminates the environment due to leaching from ore-processing sites, discharge from electronics, glass, and drug factories and historical use as rodenticide [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
34
31
15
Water utilities
782
620
39
People Served
12,437,672
8,184,201
672,442

Health Concerns for Thallium (total):


Thallium (total) Exposure by State

Water utilities in 34 states have reported detecting Thallium (total) in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Thallium (total) contaminationWater suppliers reporting Thallium (total) above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
Florida1183,890,606712,488,261
Ohio101,570,223101,570,223
Utah291,081,623291,081,623
Wisconsin213790,983197735,861
California572,923,48426452,412
North Carolina11299,10811299,108
Illinois42290,95140259,396
Indiana28235,85627233,557
New Mexico80374,64940205,326
New York52191,01049190,583
Oregon1169,9621169,962
Kentucky7109,4417109,441
Texas38100,4893760,121
Minnesota256,620256,620
Rhode Island347,187347,187
Arizona342,818342,818
Oklahoma1041,7711041,771
Massachusetts727,268727,268
New Hampshire826,606826,606
New Jersey320,167320,167
Pennsylvania816,238816,238
Idaho614,940514,540
Michigan515,29148,315
Connecticut37,24437,244
Arkansas16,96016,960
Delaware514,22845,028
Maryland438,21234,934
West Virginia63,86751,455
Alaska1113,9914603
Montana63,3661500
Maine173173
Missouri212,21500
Nevada112600
South Dakota19900
Total78212,437,6726208,184,201

The Most Polluted Communities

782 water utilities reported detecting Thallium (total) in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Thallium (total) level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Glen Canyon Ssd #1
Big Water, UT
4701 of 13.15 ppb
(3.15 ppb)
2Kampsville
Kampsville, IL
4001 of 13 ppb
(3 ppb)
3Eagles Landing
Spanish Fork, UT
1701 of 12.8 ppb
(2.8 ppb)
4Aspen Ranch
Loa, UT
1901 of 22.65 ppb
(0 to 5.3 ppb)
5Millsboro Water Department
Millsboro, DE
2,3001 of 22.5 ppb
(0 to 5 ppb)
6South Beaver Dam Elementary
Beaver Dam, WI
1003 of 32.4 ppb
(2 to 2.8 ppb)
7Medina Valley Water Supply Co
Castroville, TX
481 of 12.39 ppb
(2.39 ppb)
8Strawberry Point Prop Ow
Byram Twp., NJ
951 of 12 ppb
(2 ppb)
9Edmeston Water District
Edmeston, NY
4901 of 12 ppb
(2 ppb)
10Colby Water Co
Byram Twp, NJ
721 of 12 ppb
(2 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Thallium (total)

StandardDescriptionLevel
California Public Health GoalsDefined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.0.1 ppb
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.24 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.5 ppb
Lifetime health-based limit, non-cancer riskConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for a lifetime of exposure. The Lifetime health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is based on exposure for a a 70-kg adult consuming 2 liters of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.5 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.2 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.2 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.7 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.7 ppb

Testing Summary for Thallium (total)

Are tests routinely required for Thallium (total) by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for Thallium (total) (2004-2009):29,453 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.3 per year

Violation Summary for Thallium (total)

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for Thallium (total) since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations6
Monitoring Violations1,230
Reporting Violations0

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Human skin and immune toxicant or allergen - strong evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Strong evidence of human neurotoxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Strong evidence of human neurotoxicity Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans
Moderate evidence of human neurotoxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
One or more animal studies show brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect effects at very low doses RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva 1988
Limited evidence of nervous system toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Human nervous system toxicant - moderate evidence Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at very low doses RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva 1988
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to very low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to very low doses National Library of Medicine HazMap
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to very low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to very low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses National Library of Medicine HazMap
Strong evidence of occupational hazards European Union - Classification & Labelling
Single case study detailing occupational hazards Frazier , L, 1998

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human cardiovascular toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
One or more animal studies show cardiovascular effects at very low doses RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva 1988
One or more animal studies show respiratory effects at very low doses RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva 1988
One or more animal studies show blood effects at very low doses RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva 1988
Classified as very toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
One or more animal studies show broad systemic effects at low doses RTECS®- Toxicologist 2003
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicity Lu, F, 1991
Limited evidence of kidney toxicity Merck & Co
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva 1988

Biochemical or cellular level changes

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show biochemical changes at very low doses where the human health implications are not yet well understood RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva 1988

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingTHALLIUM•Very toxic
•Very toxic by inhalation and if swallowed
•Danger of cumulative effects
•May cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment
European Union - Classification & LabellingTHALLIUM COMPOUNDS, WITH THE EXCEPTION OF THOSE SPECIFIED ELSEWHERE IN THIS ANNEX•Very toxic
•Very toxic by inhalation and if swallowed
•Danger of cumulative effects
•Dangerous for the environment
•Toxic to aquatic organisms
Canada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics IngredientsTHALLIUM•Prohibited from use in Canadian cosmetics
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsTHALLIUM•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListTHALLIUM•This chemical was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical was flagged for suspected persistence.
National Library of Medicine HazMapTHALLIUM AND SOLUBLE COMPOUNDS•Skin Designation (ACGIH) - Danger of cutaneous absorption (ACGIH): Yes;
•Restricted - Regulations that have banned or restricted the use of the agent: Thallium rodenticides were banned in the U.S. in 1972.;
•Hepatotoxin: Hepatotoxin, Secondary;
•Neurotoxin: Sensorimotor Neuropathy;
•PEL (OSHA) - Permissible exposure limit (OSHA): 0.1 mg/m3, as Tl;
•Bioaccumulates: Yes;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 0.1 mg/m3, as Tl;
•IDLH (NIOSH) - Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health: 15 mg/m3, as Tl (soluble compounds);
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsTHALLIUM•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsTHALLIUM COMPOUNDS•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
DiPalma, J, 1107THALLIUM•Gastrointestinal or liver toxicity hazards: suspected
Frazier , L, 1998THALLIUM•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
Klaassen, C, 1996THALLIUM•Cardiovascular or blood toxicity hazards: suspected
Lu, F, 1991THALLIUM•Skin or sense organ toxicity hazards: suspected
Merck & CoTHALLIUM COMPOUNDS•Kidney toxicity hazards: suspected
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005THALLIUM• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007THALLIUM• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva 1988THALLIUM• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (rat unr)
RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva 1988THALLIUM• reproductive - Spermatogenesis (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Testes, epididymis, sperm duct (rat TDLo)
• brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect - Alteration of classical conditioning (rat TDLo)
• blood - Changes in spleen (rat TDLo)
• brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect - Increased intracranial pressure ( human LD50)
• biochemical - Multiple enzyme effects (rat TDLo)
• cardiovascular - Other changes ( human LD50)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (rat unr)
• respiratory - Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi ( human LD50)
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2003THALLIUM• broad systemic - Broad systemic toxicity (rat LDLo)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Canada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics IngredientsHealth Canada. 2007. List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients. Canada's Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist. March 2007.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationDiPalma, J.A., J. Cunningham, J. Herrera, T. McCaffery, and D. Wolf. Occupational and Industrial Toxin Exposures and the Gastrointestinal Tract. American Journal of Gastroenterology. 86(9): 1107-1117. 1991. (Table 2: Selected Agents with Purported Digestive System Injury).
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationFrazier , L. and M. L. Hage (eds.). Reproductive Hazards of the Workplace, Wiley Europe, 1998. Table 10 (Partial List of Reproductive Toxicants) available at http://www.pharmacy.ohio-state.edu/homepage/safety/chemhygiene_table_repro.pdf.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationKlaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationLu, F.C. Basic Toxicology. 2nd Edition. 1991., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationMerck & Co. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. TABLE 226-1. Common Nephrotoxic Agents http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual/tables/226tb1.htm
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva 1988RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva. Neorganicheskie soedinenia elementov I-IV groopp" (Hazardous substances. Inornanic substances containing I-IV group elements), Filov V.A., Chimia, 1988. -,242,1988
RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva 1988RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva. Neorganicheskie soedinenia elementov I-IV groopp" (Hazardous substances. Inornanic substances containing I-IV group elements), Filov V.A., Chimia, 1988. -,242,1988
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2003RTECS®- Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- -1981 72,22,2003

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