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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Tetrachloroethylene


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Tetrachloroethylene (perc) is a common soil and groundwater contaminant used in dry cleaning and as a solvent in automotive and metalworking factories and other industries. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
40
40
27
Water utilities
803
803
117
People Served
27,111,726
27,111,726
5,016,949

Health Concerns for Tetrachloroethylene:


Tetrachloroethylene Exposure by State

Water utilities in 40 states have reported detecting Tetrachloroethylene in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Tetrachloroethylene contaminationWater suppliers reporting Tetrachloroethylene above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
California14112,144,61514112,144,615
Pennsylvania741,763,026741,763,026
New York461,404,437461,404,437
Texas141,234,468141,234,468
Massachusetts741,174,660741,174,660
Indiana101,073,969101,073,969
New Jersey52928,93852928,938
Minnesota22746,59922746,599
Alabama16687,99416687,994
Florida11640,39611640,396
Wisconsin53579,97153579,971
Utah6539,6176539,617
Arizona17470,63117470,631
Washington11443,29211443,292
Illinois26379,20826379,208
Nevada6337,6506337,650
Nebraska13334,37713334,377
Maryland8331,5648331,564
Connecticut19304,73919304,739
Idaho7262,2727262,272
Delaware5252,3585252,358
Iowa13234,51613234,516
Ohio21168,52821168,528
New Mexico10141,29610141,296
Rhode Island299,519299,519
North Carolina3291,2343291,234
Oregon2069,5432069,543
Missouri1360,6781360,678
Montana459,055459,055
Hawaii252,521252,521
Virginia1321,0471321,047
Arkansas319,941319,941
Maine418,218418,218
Vermont715,648715,648
Kentucky110,476110,476
Michigan58,83458,834
New Hampshire154,429154,429
Alaska39883988
Oklahoma33753375
South Dakota199199
Total80327,111,72680327,111,726

The Most Polluted Communities

803 water utilities reported detecting Tetrachloroethylene in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Tetrachloroethylene level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Reigels Bar
Unity, WI
501 of 115 ppb
(15 ppb)
2Pawc Homesite
Wilkes-barre, PA
5521 of 217.52 ppb
(4.15 to 10.55 ppb)
3Pelham Manor
Rapidan, VA
25017 of 176.81 ppb
(3.35 to 12 ppb)
4Bedford Consolidated W.D.
Bedford Hills, NY
7,0004 of 56.56 ppb
(0 to 14.5 ppb)
5Tahoe Keys Water Company
South Lake Tahoe, CA
3,0046 of 66.13 ppb
(0.23 to 14.1 ppb)
6Valle Verde Water Co
Nogales, AZ
2,39412 of 136.1 ppb
(0 to 14.5 ppb)
7Peabody Dps Water Dept.
Peabody, MA
48,00020 of 205.68 ppb
(2.5 to 7 ppb)
8Hicksville Wd
Hicksville, NY
47,810153 of 1665.29 ppb
(0 to 14.26 ppb)
9Allegan County Services Center
Allegan, MI
1011 of 15.1 ppb
(5.1 ppb)
10Oconto Waterworks
Oconto, WI
4,7051 of 25 ppb
(0 to 10 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Tetrachloroethylene

StandardDescriptionLevel
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0 ppb
California Public Health GoalsDefined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.0.06 ppb
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.69 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.5 ppb
Lifetime health-based limit, non-cancer riskConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for a lifetime of exposure. The Lifetime health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is based on exposure for a a 70-kg adult consuming 2 liters of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.10 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.500 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.2000 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.2000 ppb

Testing Summary for Tetrachloroethylene

Are tests routinely required for Tetrachloroethylene by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for Tetrachloroethylene (2004-2009):34,005 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.6 per year

Violation Summary for Tetrachloroethylene

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for Tetrachloroethylene since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations53
Monitoring Violations4,333
Reporting Violations0

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human carcinogen Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens
Possible human carcinogen NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th Edition
Possible human carcinogen California EPA Proposition 65
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity NIOSH Occupational Carcinogens
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 5075
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- In Vitro 1978
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1986
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1987
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2003
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U 1977

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Strong evidence of human neurotoxicity Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans
nervous system - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study National Library of Medicine HazMap

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at low doses EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide Ingredients
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of kidney toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 1996
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 2003
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity Klaassen, C, 1996
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicity California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 2000
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- European Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Hygiene 1976
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986
One or more animal studies show kidney or renal system effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Environmental Research 1992
One or more animal studies show metabolic effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 1986
One or more animal studies show liver effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1985
reproductive - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study National Library of Medicine HazMap
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as a low human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Human nervous system toxicant - moderate evidence Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity US EPA, 9204

Endocrine disruption

Type of concern: Reference:
Human disruptor - moderate evidence European Commission on Endocrine Disruption

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,201,1971
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at very low doses RTECS®- European Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Hygiene 1976
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at moderate doses RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986

Biochemical or cellular level changes

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show biochemical changes at high doses where the human health implications are not yet well understood RTECS®- Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 1986
One or more animal studies show biochemical changes at high doses where the human health implications are not yet well understood RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1985

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingTETRACHLOROETHYLENE•Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
•Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
•Dangerous for the environment
•Toxic to aquatic organisms
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensTETRACHLOROETHYLENE (PERCHLOROETHYLENE)•Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans (ACGIH classification A3)
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsPERCHLORETHYLENE• S
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsPERCHLORETHYLENE• S
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsPERCHLORETHYLENE• S
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsPERCHLORETHYLENE• S
Canada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics IngredientsTETRACHLOROETHYLENE•Prohibited from use in Canadian cosmetics
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsTETRACHLOROETHYLENE•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListETHENE, TETRACHLORO-•This chemical was deemed a low human health priority and was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical was flagged for suspected persistence.
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionPERCHLOROETHYLENEHH-CAT2;WF-CAT3
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsTETRACHLOROETHYLENE•Prohibited in EU cosmetics: must not form part of the composition of cosmetic products
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsTETRACHLOROETHYLENE (PERCHLOROETHYLENE)•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMapTETRACHLOROETHYLENE•Reproductive Toxin - A chemical that is toxic to the reproductive system, including defects in the progeny and injury to male and female reproductive function: Yes;
•Hepatotoxin: Hepatotoxin, Secondary;
•Nephrotoxin: Yes;
•Neurotoxin: CNS Solvent Syndrome;
•PEL (OSHA) - Permissible exposure limit (OSHA): 100 ppm, Ceiling(OSHA) = 200 ppm(300 ppm is 5-min peak in any 3 hrs);
•STEL (ACGIH) - Short-term exposure limits (ACGIH): 100 ppm;
•LC50 - Lethal concentration in 50% of animals tested: 14716 ppm;
•IARC Carcinogen - International Agency for Research on Cancer; classifies chemicals as established (1), probable (2a), or possible (2b) human carcinogens: Probable Carcinogen;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 25 ppm;
•BEI - Biological Exposure Indices (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygiene, ACGIH): Perc in end-exhaled air = 5 ppm; perc in b
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensTETRACHLOROETHYLENE•IARC Group 2A: probable human carcinogen (International Agency for Research on Carcinogens)
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsPERLCOROETHYLENE (PERC)•Pesticide inerts of toxicological concern according to EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
NIOSH Occupational CarcinogensTETRACHLOROETHYLENE•Potential occupational carcinogen according to NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health)
NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th EditionTETRACHLOROETHYLENE (PERCHLOROETHYLENE)•Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen (National Toxicology Program classification)
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)TETRACHLOROETHENE•Persistent toxicant under Canada's Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics program - targeted for elimination or reduction
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsTETRACHLOROETHENE•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
California EPA Proposition 65TETRACHLOROETHYLENE (PERCHLOROETHYLENE)•Carcinogen: California Proposition 65
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004TETRACHLOROETHYLENE•Developmental toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 1996TETRACHLOROETHYLENE•Kidney toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 2003TETRACHLOROETHYLENE•Gastrointestinal or liver toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, 9204TETRACHLOROETHYLENE•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
Klaassen, C, 1996TETRACHLOROETHYLENE•Respiratory toxicity hazards: suspected
California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 2000TETRACHLOROETHYLENE•Skin or sense organ toxicity hazards: suspected
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006TETRACHLOROETHYLENE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007TETRACHLOROETHYLENE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986TETRACHLOROETHYLENE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Environmental Research 1992TETRACHLOROETHYLENE• kidney or renal system - Other changes in urine composition (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- European Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Hygiene 1976TETRACHLOROETHYLENE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 1986TETRACHLOROETHYLENE• metabolic - Weight loss or decreased weight gain (rat TDLo)
• biochemical - Phosphatases (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- In Vitro 1978TETRACHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (rat emb)
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,201,1971TETRACHLOROETHYLENE• occupationally related - MSHA STANDARD-air (human TWA)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1987TETRACHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction (hamster lng)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995TETRACHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2003TETRACHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human unr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1987TETRACHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction (hamster lng)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995TETRACHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2003TETRACHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human unr)
RTECS®- National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U 1977TETRACHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 5075TETRACHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (rat ihl)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Host-mediated Assay (mouse )
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: sperm (mouse ihl)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis ( human lng)
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 5075TETRACHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (rat ihl)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Host-mediated Assay (mouse )
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: sperm (mouse ihl)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis ( human lng)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994TETRACHLOROETHYLENE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Construc) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994TETRACHLOROETHYLENE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Fed Cont) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994TETRACHLOROETHYLENE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Gen Indu) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993TETRACHLOROETHYLENE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Shipyard) (human TWA)
RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1985TETRACHLOROETHYLENE• liver - Changes in liver weight (rat TDLo)
• biochemical - Lipids, including transport (rat TDLo)
• liver - Other changes (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1986TETRACHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1986TETRACHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (mouse ipr)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) 2008. ACGIH cancer classification system. www.acgih.org.
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
Canada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics IngredientsHealth Canada. 2007. List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients. Canada's Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist. March 2007.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionEU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsEC (European Commission of the European Union). 1999-2006. Enterprise Directorate-General Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetics. The rules governing cosmetic products in the European Union, Volume 1, "Cosmetics legislation."
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1987 & 2005. Office of Pesticide Programs. Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients in Pesticide Products - Categorized List of Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients.
NIOSH Occupational CarcinogensNIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 2006. NIOSH Carcinogens List (Potential occupational carcinogens). http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npotocca.html.
NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th EditionNTP (National Toxicology Program). 2005. Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)EC (Environment Canada). 1994. Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET). ARET substance list of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
California EPA Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, US EPA. Roadmaps to Sources of Information on Chemicals Listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-to-Know Act (Also Known as SARA Title 3), Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory (for Microcomputers). (Report Number EPADFDK92040). 1991. Data file distributed in 2 diskettes by Office of Pollution, Prevention, and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. NOTE: Datasource no longer being maintained by EPA; not currently available online.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, Klaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996., California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA. Roadmaps to Sources of Information on Chemicals Listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-to-Know Act (Also Known as SARA Title 3), Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory (for Microcomputers). (Report Number EPADFDK92040). 1991. Data file distributed in 2 diskettes by Office of Pollution, Prevention, and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. NOTE: Datasource no longer being maintained by EPA; not currently available online., Frazier , L. and M. L. Hage (eds.). Reproductive Hazards of the Workplace, Wiley Europe, 1998. Table 10 (Partial List of Reproductive Toxicants) available at http://www.pharmacy.ohio-state.edu/homepage/safety/chemhygiene_table_repro.pdf., Jankovic, J. A Screening Method for Occupational Reproductive Health Risk. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. 57: 641-649. 1996.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationKlaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996., Lu, F.C. Basic Toxicology. 2nd Edition. 1991., California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Acute Reference Exposure Levels (RELs), Averaging Times, and Toxicologic Endpoints. Includes all Acute Reference Exposure Levels (ARELs) developed by OEHHA through May 2000http://www.oehha.org/air/acute_rels/allAcRELs.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationCalifornia EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Acute Reference Exposure Levels (RELs), Averaging Times, and Toxicologic Endpoints. Includes all Acute Reference Exposure Levels (ARELs) developed by OEHHA through May 2000http://www.oehha.org/air/acute_rels/allAcRELs.html, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J., Prague, Czechoslovakia, Avicenum, 1986 -,108,1986
RTECS®- Environmental Research 1992RTECS®- Environmental Research. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- -1967 59,427,1992
RTECS®- European Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Hygiene 1976RTECS®- European Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Hygiene. (Paris, France) V.7-9, 1974-76. For publisher information, see TOERD9. 9,171,1976
RTECS®- Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 1986RTECS®- Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1-40, 1981-97. For publisher information, see TOSCF2 7,119,1986
RTECS®- In Vitro 1978RTECS®- In Vitro. (Rockville, MD) V.1-20, 1965-85. For publisher information, see ICDBEO. 14,290,1978
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,201,1971RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,201,1971
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1987RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 182,135,1987
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 343,157,1995
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2003RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 539,9,2003
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1987RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- -1964 182,135,1987
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- -1964 343,157,1995
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2003RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- -1964 539,9,2003
RTECS®- National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U 1977RTECS®- National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda. 5AUG1977
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 5075RTECS®- National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information. PB82-185075
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 5075RTECS®- National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information. PB82-185075
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926.55,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204.50,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910.1000,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915.1000,1993
RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1985RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959- 78,105,1985
RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1986RTECS®- Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977- 31,31,1986
RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1986RTECS®- Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 31,31,1986

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