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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Styrene


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Styrene is a pollutant from plastics, rubber and other industrial chemical factories and from landfill leachate. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
33
-
-
Water utilities
203
-
-
People Served
2,837,293
-
-

Health Concerns for Styrene:


Styrene Exposure by State

Water utilities in 33 states have reported detecting Styrene in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Styrene contamination
SystemsPopulation
Minnesota24663,592
Nebraska3507,031
Nevada2315,360
Illinois32304,841
New York5233,330
North Carolina15191,013
California9107,147
Pennsylvania9102,044
Rhode Island299,299
Florida491,066
Washington362,003
Michigan1032,600
Wisconsin3232,558
Indiana1126,720
Ohio322,277
Oklahoma213,852
Virginia106,499
New Jersey34,560
Alabama13,450
Iowa43,242
Montana22,780
Missouri12,779
Massachusetts22,456
New Mexico12,401
Texas11,650
New Hampshire51,089
Utah1350
Alaska1303
Arizona1270
Oregon1240
Delaware1213
Maine1150
Arkansas1128
Total2032,837,293

The Most Polluted Communities

203 water utilities reported detecting Styrene in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Styrene level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Green Pines S/D
Knightdale, NC
1623 of 510.6 ppb
(0 to 20 ppb)
2Abrams Elementary School
Abrams, WI
4003 of 45.45 ppb
(0 to 11 ppb)
3Lakeshore Village
Clio, MI
1181 of 13 ppb
(3 ppb)
4Town of Tangier
Tangier, VA
6501 of 22.65 ppb
(0 to 5.3 ppb)
5Sandy Trail S/D
Knightdale, NC
5082 of 82.61 ppb
(0 to 20 ppb)
6Bass Lake Annex #3
Wishon, CA
421 of 22.25 ppb
(0 to 4.5 ppb)
7Village of Clarks
Clarks, NE
3911 of 42.18 ppb
(0 to 8.7 ppb)
8Dickten & Masch Plant 1
Nashotah, WI
9010 of 121.63 ppb
(0 to 5.1 ppb)
9North Branch
North Branch, MN
5,5681 of 21.4 ppb
(0 to 2.8 ppb)
10Beards Cove
Shelton, WA
1,0301 of 21.25 ppb
(0 to 2.5 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Styrene

StandardDescriptionLevel
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.100 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.100 ppb
Lifetime health-based limit, non-cancer riskConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for a lifetime of exposure. The Lifetime health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is based on exposure for a a 70-kg adult consuming 2 liters of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.100 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.2000 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.7000 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.20000 ppb

Testing Summary for Styrene

Are tests routinely required for Styrene by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for Styrene (2004-2009):33,930 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.6 per year

Violation Summary for Styrene

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for Styrene since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations0
Monitoring Violations4,302
Reporting Violations0

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Human immune and respiratory toxicant or allergen - strong evidence Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics

Endocrine disruption

Type of concern: Reference:
Human endocrine disruptor - strong evidence European Commission on Endocrine Disruption
Limited evidence of endocrine disruption BKH/European Commission, 2000
endocrine - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at very low doses RTECS®- American Journal of Ophthalmology 1946
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at low doses RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 2000
Limited evidence of kidney toxicity Stacey, N, 1995
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005 -,105,2005
One or more animal studies show liver effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology 1982
One or more animal studies show gastrointestinal effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 1994
One or more animal studies show blood effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 1994
One or more animal studies show cardiovascular effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1980
One or more animal studies show metabolic effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 1985
One or more animal studies show kidney or renal system effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica 1983
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as a low human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens
Cancer - limited evidence US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 2001
Cancer - limited evidence Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews Database
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1982
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1982
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1991
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Hereditas (Lund, Sweden) 1984
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1978
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1980
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1993
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology 1981
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Personal Communication from J 1982
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1989
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1978
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1992
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1981
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland) 1983
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Abstracts of Papers, Society of Toxicology 1980
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1976
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Chemico-Biological Interactions 1982
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology, Supplement 1980
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Chemico-Biological Interactions 2001
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2003
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicology 2003
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 2006
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2003
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1977
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Bolletino della Societe Italiana di Biologia Sperimentale 1983
One or more animal studies show tumor formation at high doses RTECS®- Khigiena i Zdraveopazvane 1982

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,235,1971
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
Single case study detailing occupational hazards National Library of Medicine HazMap
Single case study detailing occupational hazards Frazier , L, 1998

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity US EPA, 9204
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology 1985
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 1985
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Journal of Environmental Biology 1990
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Teratology, The International Journal of Abnormal Development 1990

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
Classified as irritant European Union - Classification & Labelling
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at low doses RTECS®- AMA Archives of Industrial Health 1956
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at moderate doses RTECS®- Union Carbide Data Sheet 1963
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at high doses RTECS®- Industrial Medicine 1948

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect effects at high doses RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1980
One or more animal studies show brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect effects at high doses RTECS®- Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 1985

Biochemical or cellular level changes

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show biochemical changes at high doses where the human health implications are not yet well understood RTECS®- JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology 1982
One or more animal studies show biochemical changes at high doses where the human health implications are not yet well understood RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1980
One or more animal studies show biochemical changes at high doses where the human health implications are not yet well understood RTECS®- Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica 1983

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Miscellaneous

Type of concern: Reference:
Occupational hazards related to handling European Union - Classification & Labelling

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be persistent Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Multiple, additive exposure sources

Type of concern: Reference:
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food FDA Food Additive Status
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food FDA Everything Added to Food



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingSTYRENE•Flammable
•Harmful
•Harmful by inhalation
•Irritant (eyes, skin, or lungs)
•Irritating to eyes and skin
FDA Food Additive StatusSTYRENE• miscellaneous
• Food additive: food additive for which a petition has been filed and a regulation issued
• See Food additive: food additive for which a petition has been filed and a regulation issued - Ion-exchange membrane - CFR173.20
• Ion-exchange resin - CFR173.25
• Food additive: synthetic flavor -172.515
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsSTYRENE• Asthmagen sensitizer
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsSTYRENE• Asthmagen sensitizer
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsSTYRENE• Asthmagen sensitizer
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsSTYRENE• Asthmagen sensitizer
FDA Everything Added to FoodSTYRENE• Fully up-to-date toxicology information has been sought.
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListBENZENE, ETHENYL-•This chemical was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical was flagged for as a low human health priority.
Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine SystemSTYRENE•EPA: probable endocrine disruptor
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionSTYRENEHH-CAT1;WF-CAT3
IFRA Fragrance Ingredient ListSTYRENE•The chemical has been reported as used in fragrance compounds by IFRA affiliated member companies in 2008.
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsSTYRENE•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMapSTYRENE•Asthma - Reversible bronchoconstriction (narrowing of bronchioles) initiated by the inhalation of irritating or allergenic agents: Yes;
•Skin Sensitizer - An agent that can induce an allergic reaction in the skin or lungs: Yes;
•Dermatotoxin: Skin Burns;
•Neurotoxin: CNS Solvent Syndrome;
•PEL (OSHA) - Permissible exposure limit (OSHA): 100 ppm, Ceiling(OSHA) = 200 ppm(600 ppm is 5-min. peak in any 3 hrs.);
•STEL (ACGIH) - Short-term exposure limits (ACGIH): 40 ppm;
•RD50 - Concentration producing a 50% decrease in respiratory rate in experimental animals following a 10-minute exposure: 980 ppm;
•LC50 - Lethal concentration in 50% of animals tested: 4388 ppm;
•IARC Carcinogen - International Agency for Research on Cancer; classifies chemicals as established (1), probable (2a), or possible (2b) human carcinogens: Possible Carcinogen;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 20 ppm;BE: Mandelic acid plus phenylglyoxylic acid in
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensSTYRENE•IARC Group 2B: possible human carcinogen (International Agency for Research on Carcinogens)
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsETHENYLBENZENE•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004STYRENE•Gastrointestinal or liver toxicity hazards: suspected
BKH/European Commission, 2000STYRENE•Endocrine toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 2001STYRENE•Cancer hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 2000STYRENE•Respiratory toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, 9204STYRENE•Developmental toxicity hazards: suspected
Frazier , L, 1998STYRENE•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
Stacey, N, 1995STYRENE•Kidney toxicity hazards: suspected
Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews DatabaseSTYRENE•Chemicals Shown to Cause Mammary Gland Tumors in Animal Studies
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006STYRENE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007STYRENE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986STYRENE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Abstracts of Papers, Society of Toxicology 1980STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (mouse ihl)
RTECS®- Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica 1983STYRENE• kidney or renal system - Other changes (rat TDLo)
• biochemical - Other oxidoreductases (rat TDLo)
• biochemical - Other transferases (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- AMA Archives of Industrial Health 1956STYRENE• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- American Journal of Ophthalmology 1946STYRENE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- American Journal of Ophthalmology 1946STYRENE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology, Supplement 1980STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster lng)
RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology, Supplement 1980STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster lng)
RTECS®- Bolletino della Societe Italiana di Biologia Sperimentale 1983STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Saccharomyces cerevisiae )
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Gene Conversion and Mitotic Recombination (Saccharomyces cerevisiae )
RTECS®- Bolletino della Societe Italiana di Biologia Sperimentale 1983STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Saccharomyces cerevisiae )
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Gene Conversion and Mitotic Recombination (Saccharomyces cerevisiae )
RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland) 1983STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland) 1983STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1982STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis ( human lym)
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1982STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis ( human lym)
RTECS®- Chemico-Biological Interactions 2001STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Adduct (mouse ihl)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (mouse ihl)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (mouse ihl)
RTECS®- Chemico-Biological Interactions 1982STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (hamster lng)
RTECS®- Chemico-Biological Interactions 2001STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (mouse ihl)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (mouse ihl)
RTECS®- Chemico-Biological Interactions 1982STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (hamster lng)
RTECS®- Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005 -,105,2005STYRENE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant ( human )
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1991STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: body fluid assay ( human )
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1993STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange ( human lym)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1991STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: body fluid assay ( human )
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1993STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange ( human lym)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2003STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human ihl)
RTECS®- Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 1985STYRENE• reproductive - Viability index (rat TDLo)
• metabolic - Weight loss or decreased weight gain (rat TDLo)
• brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect - Changes in brain weight (rat TDLo)
• brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect - Fluid intake (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Hereditas (Lund, Sweden) 1984STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis ( human ihl)
RTECS®- Hereditas (Lund, Sweden) 1984STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis ( human ihl)
RTECS®- Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 1994STYRENE• blood - Changes in serum composition (eg., TP, bilirubin, cholesterol) (rat TDLo)
• gastrointestinal - Changes in structure or function of endocrine pancreas (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Industrial Medicine 1948STYRENE• skin - Primary skin irritant ( human )
RTECS®- Industrial Medicine 1948STYRENE• skin - Primary skin irritant ( human )
RTECS®- JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology 1981STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (rat emb)
RTECS®- JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology 1982STYRENE• biochemical - Dehydrogenases (rat TDLo)
• liver - Other changes (rat TDLo)
• biochemical - Phosphatases (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology 1981STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (rat emb)
RTECS®- Journal of Environmental Biology 1990STYRENE• reproductive - Fetotoxicity (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Khigiena i Zdraveopazvane 1982STYRENE• cancer - skin tumor formations - equivocal (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,235,1971STYRENE• occupationally related - MSHA STANDARD-air (human TWA)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1989STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (rat lvr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1992STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (mouse ipr)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: sperm (rat ipr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1976STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Host-mediated Assay (mouse )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2003STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis ( human mul)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1977STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1978STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis ( human lym)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1980STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange ( human ihl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1982STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Inhibition ( human hla)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1989STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (rat lvr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1992STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (mouse ipr)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: sperm (rat ipr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1976STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Host-mediated Assay (mouse )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2003STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis ( human mul)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1977STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1978STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis ( human lym)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1980STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange ( human ihl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1982STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Inhibition ( human hla)
RTECS®- Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology 1985STYRENE• reproductive - Behavioral (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994STYRENE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Construc) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994STYRENE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Fed Cont) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994STYRENE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Gen Indu) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993STYRENE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Shipyard) (human TWA)
RTECS®- Personal Communication from J 1982STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (rat lvr)
RTECS®- Personal Communication from J 1982STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (rat lvr)
RTECS®- Teratology, The International Journal of Abnormal Development 1990STYRENE• reproductive - Urogenital system (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 2006STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Adduct (mouse ihl)
RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1978STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (rat ihl)
RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1980STYRENE• biochemical - Monoamine oxidase (rat TDLo)
• brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect - Other degenerative changes (rat TDLo)
• cardiovascular - Regional or general arteriolar constriction (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1981STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1978STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (rat ihl)
RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1981STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- Toxicology 2003STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human leu)
RTECS®- Toxicology 2003STYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human leu)
RTECS®- Union Carbide Data Sheet 1963STYRENE• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
FDA Food Additive StatusFDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
FDA Everything Added to FoodFDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine SystemIllinois EPA (Illinois Environmental Protection Agency). 2000. Preliminary list of chemicals associated with endocrine system effects in animals and humans (*) or in vitro (+). In EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) 2000. Handbook for Non-Cancer Health Effects Valuation, Appendix C.
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionEU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
IFRA Fragrance Ingredient ListIFRA (International Fragrance Assocication). 2010. IFRA Fragrance Ingredient List based on 2008 Use Survey. Accessed online 01/04/2010: http://www.ifraorg.org/Home/News/Latest-News/page.aspx/66?xf_itemId=43&xf_selectionDatapartId=25
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
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Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationBKH/European Commission. Towards the establishment of a priority list of substances for further evaluation of their role in endocrine disruption: - preparation of a candidate list of substances as a basis for priority setting. Final report-November 2000. http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/docum/01262_en.htm#bkh. Category 1 chemicals from Annex 1: Candidate list of 553 substances. http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/docum/bkh_annex_01.pdf, Illinois EPA. Endocrine Disruptors Strategy. 1997. (Table 1: Preliminary List of Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System Effects in Animals and Humans or In Vitro). http://www.nihs.go.jp/hse/environ/illiepatable.htm, Japanese National Institute of Health Sciences. Lists of Paradigmatic Chemicals. http://www.nihs.go.jp/hse/endocrine-e/paradigm/paradigm.html, Keith, L.H. (ed.). Environmental Endocrine Disruptors. John Wiley & Sons, NY. 1997. http://www.wileyeurope.com/cda/product/0,,0471191450%7Cdesc%7C3037,00.html, World Wildlife Fund. Our Stolen Future. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Basics/chemlist.htm. The WWF list is derived from references detailed at http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Sources/chemsources.htm and was originally published in: Colborn, T., F.S. vom Saal, and A.M. Soto. Developmental Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals In Wildlife and Humans. Environmental Health Perspectives 101(5): 378-384. 1993.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained at http://monographs.iarc.fr/monoeval/grlist.html., National Toxicology Program. Summary for Agents, Substances, Mixtures or Exposure Circumstances to be Reviewed in 2001-2002 for Possible Listing in the Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition. NTP Board of Scientific Counselors, NTP, Research Triangle Park, NC.http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov/NewHomeRoc/11thConsideration.html National Toxicology Program. Summary for Agents, Substances, Mixtures or Exposure Circumstances to be Reviewed in 2004-2005 for Possible Listing in the Report on Carcinogens, Twelfth Edition. NTP Board of Scientific Counselors, NTP, Research Triangle Park, NC. http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov/NewHomeRoc/12thConsideration.html, Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.-CAND
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Acute Reference Exposure Levels (RELs), Averaging Times, and Toxicologic Endpoints. Includes all Acute Reference Exposure Levels (ARELs) developed by OEHHA through May 2000http://www.oehha.org/air/acute_rels/allAcRELs.html, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA. Roadmaps to Sources of Information on Chemicals Listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-to-Know Act (Also Known as SARA Title 3), Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory (for Microcomputers). (Report Number EPADFDK92040). 1991. Data file distributed in 2 diskettes by Office of Pollution, Prevention, and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. NOTE: Datasource no longer being maintained by EPA; not currently available online., Jankovic, J. A Screening Method for Occupational Reproductive Health Risk. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. 57: 641-649. 1996.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationFrazier , L. and M. L. Hage (eds.). Reproductive Hazards of the Workplace, Wiley Europe, 1998. Table 10 (Partial List of Reproductive Toxicants) available at http://www.pharmacy.ohio-state.edu/homepage/safety/chemhygiene_table_repro.pdf.
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Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews DatabaseRudel RA, KR Attfield, JN Schifano and JG Brody. Chemicals Causing Mammary Gland Tumors in Animals Signal New Directions for Epidemiology, Chemicals Testing, and Risk Assessment for Breast Cancer Prevention. CANCER Supplement. 2007 Jun 15;109(12):2635-2666.
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