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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Simazine


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Simazine is a widely used herbicide that has been associated with endocrine disruption and cancer in experimental studies. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
21
1
1
Water utilities
194
2
2
People Served
16,474,435
1,340
1,340

Health Concerns for Simazine:


Simazine Exposure by State

Water utilities in 21 states have reported detecting Simazine in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Simazine contaminationWater suppliers reporting Simazine above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
Illinois26257,34621,340
Texas294,213,07100
Maryland93,586,07300
North Carolina241,921,31000
Ohio351,832,62700
Pennsylvania61,734,61900
Indiana181,214,33600
Florida3424,51000
California4412,44600
Kentucky15220,86100
Delaware1201,00000
Idaho1185,78700
Arkansas180,25800
Alabama256,03700
Rhode Island143,80900
Wisconsin633,35000
Nebraska226,11500
Missouri723,28300
Arizona14,97100
Iowa21,82600
New York180000
Total19416,474,43521,340

The Most Polluted Communities

194 water utilities reported detecting Simazine in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Simazine level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Farina
Farina, IL
60027 of 273.01 ppb
(0.4 to 7.8 ppb)
2Keenhold Assoc Water Sys
PA
401 of 12 ppb
(2 ppb)
3Lake Region Mobile Home Village
Haines City, FL
5651 of 11 ppb
(1 ppb)
4Brookside Village Mhp
South Vienna, OH
4751 of 10.79 ppb
(0.79 ppb)
5Evansville
Evansville, IL
74012 of 250.65 ppb
(0 to 4.2 ppb)
6Salem
Salem, IL
9,0006 of 210.54 ppb
(0 to 3.6 ppb)
7Green Grove Trailer Ct
Greencastle, PA
491 of 20.5 ppb
(0 to 1 ppb)
8Patoka
Patoka, IL
7316 of 100.48 ppb
(0 to 1.7 ppb)
9Mattoon
Mattoon, IL
19,0005 of 220.44 ppb
(0 to 3.1 ppb)
10Vandalia
Vandalia, IL
6,9756 of 210.43 ppb
(0 to 3.6 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Simazine

StandardDescriptionLevel
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.4 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.4 ppb
California Public Health GoalsDefined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.4 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.700 ppb

Testing Summary for Simazine

Are tests routinely required for Simazine by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for Simazine (2004-2009):23,041 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.4 per year

Violation Summary for Simazine

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for Simazine since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations4
Monitoring Violations1,897
Reporting Violations0

Endocrine disruption

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human disruptor FDA Food Additive Status
Human disruptor - moderate evidence European Commission on Endocrine Disruption
Limited evidence of endocrine disruption Japanese National Institute of Health Sciences

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Cancer - limited evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Cancer - limited evidence US EPA, Office of Pesticide Programs, 2002
Cancer - limited evidence Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews Database
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Bolletino della Societe Italiana di Biologia Sperimentale 1984
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 8973
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2003
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 1977
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B: Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes 1980
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at low doses RTECS®- Ciba-Geigy Toxicology Data/Indexes 1977
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity US EPA, 1788
Limited evidence of kidney toxicity US EPA, 1788
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at moderate doses RTECS®- Ciba-Geigy Toxicology Data/Indexes 1977

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Water Framework Directive

Multiple, additive exposure sources

Type of concern: Reference:
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food FDA Food Additive Status



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingSIMAZINE•Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
•Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
•Dangerous for the environment
•Very toxic to aquatic organisms
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsSIMAZINE•Prohibited in EU cosmetics: must not form part of the composition of cosmetic products
European Union - Water Framework DirectiveSIMAZINE•Priority substance in EU water policy
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs6-CHLORO-N,N'-DIETHYL-1,3,5-TRIAZINE-2,4-DIAMINE•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensSIMAZINE•IARC Group 3 (no cancer link)
US EPA, 1788SIMAZINE•Gastrointestinal or liver toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, 1788SIMAZINE•Kidney toxicity hazards: suspected
Japanese National Institute of Health SciencesSIMAZINE•Endocrine toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Office of Pesticide Programs, 2002SIMAZINE•Cancer hazards: suspected
Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews DatabaseSIMAZINE•Chemicals Shown to Cause Mammary Gland Tumors in Animal Studies
FDA Food Additive StatusSIMAZINE• Food additive: herbicide
• Food additive: food additive for which a petition has been filed and a regulation issued
• Tolerances for Residues - 40 Code of Federal Regulations 180.213
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionSIMAZINEHH-CAT2;WF-CAT3
RTECS®- Bolletino della Societe Italiana di Biologia Sperimentale 1984SIMAZINE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange ( human lym)
RTECS®- Ciba-Geigy Toxicology Data/Indexes 1977SIMAZINE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B: Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes 1980SIMAZINE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction (Drosophila melanogaster orl)
RTECS®- Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 1977SIMAZINE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Dominant Lethal Strain (Drosophila melanogaster par)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction (Drosophila melanogaster par)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2003SIMAZINE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis ( human orl)
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 8973SIMAZINE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells (mouse lym)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsEC (European Commission of the European Union). 1999-2006. Enterprise Directorate-General Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetics. The rules governing cosmetic products in the European Union, Volume 1, "Cosmetics legislation."
European Union - Water Framework DirectiveEU (European Union). 2000. Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC ) - integrated river basin management for Europe. List of priority substances.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA. Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right to Know. Proposed and Final Rules. 59 Federal Register 1788 (Jan 12, 1994); 59 Federal Register 61432 (November 30, 1994). Summarized in Hazard Information on Toxic Chemicals Added to EPCRA Section 313 Under Chemical Expansion. http://www.epa.gov/tri/chemical/hazard_cx.htm
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA. Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right to Know. Proposed and Final Rules. 59 Federal Register 1788 (Jan 12, 1994); 59 Federal Register 61432 (November 30, 1994). Summarized in Hazard Information on Toxic Chemicals Added to EPCRA Section 313 Under Chemical Expansion. http://www.epa.gov/tri/chemical/hazard_cx.htm
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationJapanese National Institute of Health Sciences. Lists of Paradigmatic Chemicals. http://www.nihs.go.jp/hse/endocrine-e/paradigm/paradigm.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Office of Pesticide Programs. List of Chemicals Evaluated for Carcinogenic Potential (5/10/2002). OPP, Washington, DC. http://www.epi.uci.edu/valleycenter/EPAListCarcinogenicChemicals.pdf
Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews DatabaseRudel RA, KR Attfield, JN Schifano and JG Brody. Chemicals Causing Mammary Gland Tumors in Animals Signal New Directions for Epidemiology, Chemicals Testing, and Risk Assessment for Breast Cancer Prevention. CANCER Supplement. 2007 Jun 15;109(12):2635-2666.
FDA Food Additive StatusFDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionEU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
RTECS®- Bolletino della Societe Italiana di Biologia Sperimentale 1984RTECS®- Bolletino della Societe Italiana di Biologia Sperimentale. (Casa Editrice Idelson, Via A. de Gasperi, 55, 80133 Naples, Italy) V.2- 60,2149,1984
RTECS®- Ciba-Geigy Toxicology Data/Indexes 1977RTECS®- Ciba-Geigy Toxicology Data/Indexes. (Ciba-Geigy Corp., 556 Morris Ave., Summit, NJ 07901) -,-,1977
RTECS®- Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B: Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes 1980RTECS®- Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B: Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes. (Marcel Dekker, 270 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016) V.B11- 15,867,1980
RTECS®- Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 1977RTECS®- Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. (Hemisphere Pub., 1025 Vermont Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 3,691,1977
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2003RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 537,141,2003
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 8973RTECS®- National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information. PB84-138973

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