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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Silver (total)


Status: For this chemical EPA has established a non-enforceable guideline called a "secondary standard," regulating it for aesthetic or cosmetic concerns (taste, odor, tooth discoloration, etc.)

Silver is an element from natural deposits and mining wastes; it is also associated with the development of photographic and x-ray film and the use of silver in antibacterial consumer products.

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
19
2
2
Water utilities
250
3
3
People Served
5,778,244
3,540
3,540

Health Concerns for Silver (total):


Silver (total) Exposure by State

Water utilities in 19 states have reported detecting Silver (total) in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Silver (total) contaminationWater suppliers reporting Silver (total) above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
Missouri2860,72623,460
New Hampshire3176,271180
California683,602,04300
New York19405,44100
New Jersey15365,70400
Utah2312,02500
Alaska2221,91100
Delaware4205,77200
Kentucky17164,14400
Wisconsin15158,18200
Nevada156,50000
Washington1246,48800
Alabama332,53500
North Dakota918,62300
Maine518,09100
Texas817,44800
Illinois410,36100
West Virginia63,37900
Arkansas12,60000
Total2505,778,24433,540

The Most Polluted Communities

250 water utilities reported detecting Silver (total) in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Silver (total) level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Magdalen College
NH
801 of 1110 ppb
(110 ppb)
2Haywood City
Benton, MO
3001 of 395.33 ppb
(0 to 286 ppb)
3Colby Brook Estates
Epsom, NH
881 of 148 ppb
(48 ppb)
4Olde Country Village Townhouse
Londonderry, NH
1302 of 247 ppb
(4 to 90 ppb)
5Willowbank Colony
Edgeley, ND
951 of 230 ppb
(0 to 60 ppb)
6City of Oakes
Oakes, ND
1,9791 of 230 ppb
(0 to 60 ppb)
7Bethany
Bethany, MO
3,1601 of 629.17 ppb
(0 to 175 ppb)
8City of Strasburg
Strasburg, ND
5491 of 326.67 ppb
(0 to 80 ppb)
9Rancho Corrido RV Resort
Pauma Valley, CA
3501 of 124.8 ppb
(24.8 ppb)
10Lake Shure Home Owners Association
Harwood, ND
751 of 323.33 ppb
(0 to 70 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Silver (total)

StandardDescriptionLevel
Lifetime health-based limit, non-cancer riskConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for a lifetime of exposure. The Lifetime health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is based on exposure for a a 70-kg adult consuming 2 liters of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.100 ppb
National Secondary Drinking Water RegulationsA National Secondary Drinking Water Regulation is a non-enforceable guideline regarding contaminants that may cause cosmetic effects (such as taste, odor, or color). Some states choose to adopt them as enforceable standards. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 100 ppb
Health-Based Screening LevelA benchmark concentration of contaminants in water that may be of potential concern for human health, if exceeded. For noncarcinogens, the HBSL represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse effects over a lifetime of exposure. For carcinogens, the HBSL range represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that corresponds to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 chance in 1 million to 1 chance in 10 thousand. Source: U.S. Geological Survey.100 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.200 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.200 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.200 ppb

Testing Summary for Silver (total)

Are tests routinely required for Silver (total) by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for Silver (total) (2004-2009):11,389 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.4 per year

Violation Summary for Silver (total)

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for Silver (total) since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations0
Monitoring Violations255
Reporting Violations0

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to very low doses National Library of Medicine HazMap
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to very low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to very low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to very low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses National Library of Medicine HazMap

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as medium human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicity California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 2003
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show tumor formation at high doses RTECS®- Zeitschrift fuer Krebsforschung 1960
One or more animal studies show tumor formation at high doses RTECS®- Cancer Research 1956
One or more animal studies show tumor formation at high doses RTECS®- Naturwissenschaften 1955
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Enhanced skin absorption

Type of concern: Reference:
Suspected nano-scale ingredients with potential to absorb into the skin Nanomaterial Database



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsSILVER• o
Canada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics IngredientsSILVER•Use is restricted in Canadian cosmetics
FDA Color Additive StatusSILVER•Color additive approved by FDA for use in cosmetics
•Color additive not approved by FDA for cosmetics used around eyes
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsSILVER•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListSILVER•This chemical was deemed a moderate human health priority and was flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical was flagged for suspected persistence.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)SILVER•Group D: Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity (EPA classification)
CTFA International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and HandbookSILVER•Color Additives - Exempt from Batch Certification by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration
National Library of Medicine HazMapSILVER, METAL AND SOLUBLE COMPOUNDS•Methemoglobinemia: Methemoglobinemia, Secondary;
•PEL (OSHA) - Permissible exposure limit (OSHA): 0.01 mg/m3, as Ag;
•Bioaccumulates: Yes;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 0.01 mg/m3, as Ag(compounds), 0.1 mg/m3(metal);
•Flammability (NFPA) - NFPA flammability code: 0 = will not burn; 1 = must be preheated; 2 = high ambient temp required; 3 = may ignite at ambient temp; 4 = burn readily: 0: will not burn;
•IDLH (NIOSH) - Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health: 10 mg/m3, as Ag;
•MAK - Maximum Allowable Concentration (Federal Republic of Germany): 0.1 mg/m3, inhalable fraction(metal);
Nanomaterial DatabaseSILVER•potential nano-scale ingredient
Nanomaterial DatabaseSILVER•potential nano-scale ingredient
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)SILVER COMPOUNDS•Persistent toxicant under Canada's Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics program - targeted for elimination or reduction
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsSILVER•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsSILVER COMPOUNDS•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 2003SILVER COMPOUNDS•Skin or sense organ toxicity hazards: suspected
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005SILVER• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006SILVER• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007SILVER• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- Cancer Research 1956SILVER• cancer - Tumors at site of application (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Naturwissenschaften 1955SILVER• cancer - Tumors at site of application (rat TD)
RTECS®- Zeitschrift fuer Krebsforschung 1960SILVER• cancer - Tumors at site of application (rat TDLo)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
Canada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics IngredientsHealth Canada. 2007. List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients. Canada's Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist. March 2007.
FDA Color Additive StatusFDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Color Additive Status List. September 2006.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
CTFA International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and HandbookCTFA (Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association). 2006. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook, 11th Edition. Color Additive Information. Washington, DC.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Nanomaterial DatabaseNanoWerk. 2007. Nanomaterial Database. Available online: http://www.nanowerk.com/phpscripts/n_dbsearch.php
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)EC (Environment Canada). 1994. Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET). ARET substance list of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationCalifornia EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- Cancer Research 1956RTECS®- Cancer Research. (Public Ledger Building, Suit 816, 6th & Chestnut Sts., Philadelphia, PA 19106) V.1- 1941- 16,439,1956
RTECS®- Naturwissenschaften 1955RTECS®- Naturwissenschaften. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Platz 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.1- 1913- 42,75,1955
RTECS®- Zeitschrift fuer Krebsforschung 1960RTECS®- Zeitschrift fuer Krebsforschung. (Berlin, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.1-75, 1903-71. For publisher information, see JCROD7. 63,586,1960

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