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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Radium-228


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Radium-228 is a radioactive element usually found around uranium deposits. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
36
36
24
Water utilities
8,701
8,701
219
People Served
95,420,485
95,420,485
1,581,065

Health Concerns for Radium-228:


Radium-228 Exposure by State

Water utilities in 36 states have reported detecting Radium-228 in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Radium-228 contaminationWater suppliers reporting Radium-228 above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
California1,36737,456,9701,36737,456,970
Florida2669,894,3482669,894,348
Illinois8717,960,9938717,960,993
New Jersey3355,618,7383355,618,738
Texas6034,910,0526034,910,052
New York1,1694,109,2201,1694,109,220
Massachusetts1463,297,3001463,297,300
Pennsylvania2763,003,2982763,003,298
Ohio1622,065,1591622,065,159
North Carolina3442,026,4373442,026,437
Missouri3071,832,1323071,832,132
Nevada421,648,945421,648,945
Virginia2201,638,2322201,638,232
Alabama301,496,520301,496,520
Wisconsin188782,757188782,757
Iowa299777,134299777,134
New Mexico209744,369209744,369
Nebraska82718,76682718,766
Indiana230694,462230694,462
Connecticut268670,115268670,115
Maryland52631,58252631,582
Arizona11590,40411590,404
Idaho94542,81894542,818
New Hampshire433535,978433535,978
Rhode Island19349,05919349,059
Kentucky19287,54919287,549
South Carolina56246,41856246,418
Arkansas112240,093112240,093
Wyoming146227,010146227,010
Utah8141,6368141,636
Maine208111,196208111,196
South Dakota37104,99837104,998
Montana4931,8614931,861
Vermont4126,4744126,474
Delaware16,00016,000
West Virginia11,46211,462
Total8,70195,420,4858,70195,420,485

The Most Polluted Communities

8,701 water utilities reported detecting Radium-228 in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Radium-228 level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Wildwood Water Company
Old Lyme, CT
1326 of 613.43 pCi/L
(11.2 to 14.85 pCi/L)
2South Silver Creek I II & Iii
Austin, TX
30310 of 1012 pCi/L
(4.1 to 13.8 pCi/L)
3City of Brady
Brady, TX
5,4339 of 911.93 pCi/L
(6.3 to 14.65 pCi/L)
4Mineral Point
Mineral Point, MO
40015 of 1511.87 pCi/L
(8.9 to 14.4 pCi/L)
5Council Creek Village
Austin, TX
32710 of 1010.54 pCi/L
(8.9 to 12.2 pCi/L)
6Blue Ridge Mobile Court
King Of Prussia, NY
1751 of 110.05 pCi/L
(10.05 pCi/L)
7Melody Oaks Trailer Park
Jackson, CA
1201 of 18.67 pCi/L
(8.67 pCi/L)
8Town of Broadway
Broadway, NC
1,4766 of 67.72 pCi/L
(6.6 to 8.45 pCi/L)
9North San Saba Wsc
San Saba, TX
7413 of 37.53 pCi/L
(5.7 to 10.5 pCi/L)
10Brady Lake Water System
Brady, TX
1673 of 37.4 pCi/L
(4.1 to 11.7 pCi/L)

Health Based Limits for Radium-228

StandardDescriptionLevel
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0 pCi/L
California Public Health GoalsDefined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.0.02 pCi/L
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.5 pCi/L
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.5 pCi/L

Testing Summary for Radium-228

Are tests routinely required for Radium-228 by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for Radium-228 (2004-2009):17,567 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.5 per year

Violation Summary for Radium-228

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for Radium-228 since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations4
Monitoring Violations1,946
Reporting Violations0

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
National Library of Medicine HazMapRADIUM•Anemia: Anemia, Aplastic;
•IARC Carcinogen - International Agency for Research on Cancer; classifies chemicals as established (1), probable (2a), or possible (2b) human carcinogens: Known Carcinogen;



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.

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