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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Pyrene


Status: Unregulated - EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Pyrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) released as a pollutant from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels.

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
7
-
-
Water utilities
21
-
-
People Served
1,675,884
-
-

Health Concerns for Pyrene:


Pyrene Exposure by State

Water utilities in 7 states have reported detecting Pyrene in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Pyrene contamination
SystemsPopulation
New Jersey41,180,517
Delaware2237,130
Rhode Island6189,277
California359,325
Arkansas38,801
Texas1525
Iowa2309
Total211,675,884

The Most Polluted Communities

21 water utilities reported detecting Pyrene in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Pyrene level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Plover Water Supply
Storm Lake, IA
951 of 10.4 ppb
(0.4 ppb)
2NJ American Water Company
Shorthills, NJ
217,2301 of 10.33 ppb
(0.33 ppb)
3Hampton Waterworks
Hampton, AR
1,7704 of 50.21 ppb
(0 to 0.55 ppb)
4Lost Hills Utility District
Lost Hills, CA
2,7721 of 20.11 ppb
(0 to 0.21 ppb)
5Palmer Water Supply
Palmer, IA
2141 of 20.1 ppb
(0 to 0.2 ppb)
6New Jersey American - Elizabethtown
Plainfield, NJ
609,3871 of 10.08 ppb
(0.08 ppb)
7Harrisburg Waterworks
Harrisburg, AR
2,1921 of 30.07 ppb
(0 to 0.22 ppb)
8West Houston Mobile Home Comm
Houston, TX
5251 of 10.06 ppb
(0.06 ppb)
9City of Atwater
Atwater, CA
26,5151 of 20.05 ppb
(0 to 0.1 ppb)
10Sayreville W Dept
Sayreville, NJ
39,0001 of 10.04 ppb
(0.04 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Pyrene

StandardDescriptionLevel
Health-Based Screening LevelA benchmark concentration of contaminants in water that may be of potential concern for human health, if exceeded. For noncarcinogens, the HBSL represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse effects over a lifetime of exposure. For carcinogens, the HBSL range represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that corresponds to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 chance in 1 million to 1 chance in 10 thousand. Source: U.S. Geological Survey.200 ppb
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.830 ppb

Testing Summary for Pyrene

Are tests routinely required for Pyrene by federal law?No
Water suppliers reporting tests for Pyrene (2004-2009):2,607 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.4 per year

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible Concern
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife Emerging PBTs from peer-reviewed literature
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2000
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicology 1981
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1989
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1984
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Cancer Research 1982
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 1978
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutagenesis 1988
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1988
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1988
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Cancer Research 1971
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1981
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1983
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Eisei Shikenjo Hokoku 1985
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2005
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2008
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Developments in Toxicology and Environtal Science 1977
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1984
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1985
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1981
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Proceedings, National Cancer Conference 1965
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2002
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2004
One or more in vitro tests on microorganisms show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutagenesis 1989
One or more in vitro tests on microorganisms show positive mutation results RTECS®- Gann Monograph 1968
One or more in vitro tests on microorganisms show positive mutation results RTECS®- Biochemical Journal 1968
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at moderate doses RTECS®- "Sbornik Vysledku Toxixologickeho Vysetreni Latek A Pripravku," Marhold, J 1972

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Suspected to be an environmental toxin and be persistent or bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsPYRENE•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)PYRENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant under Canada's Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics program - targeted for elimination or reduction
OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible ConcernPYRENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Oslo-Paris (OSPAR) Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic, chemical of concern
Emerging PBTs from peer-reviewed literaturePYRENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Limited or emerging evidence in open scientific literature
EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)PYRENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, priority chemical for voluntary waste/emission reductions
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)PYRENE•Group D: Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity (EPA classification)
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensPYRENE•IARC Group 3 (no cancer link)
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListPYRENE•This chemical was flagged for further attention by CEPA due to suspected aquatic toxicity and persistence.
RTECS®- "Sbornik Vysledku Toxixologickeho Vysetreni Latek A Pripravku," Marhold, J 1972PYRENE• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Biochemical Journal 1968PYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Adduct (salmon tes)
RTECS®- Cancer Research 1971PYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (hamster emb)
RTECS®- Cancer Research 1982PYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (rat lvr)
RTECS®- Developments in Toxicology and Environtal Science 1977PYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Eisei Shikenjo Hokoku 1985PYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster lng)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1988PYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (mouse emb)
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1983PYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (hamster lvr)
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1984PYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Gann Monograph 1968PYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Adduct (non-mammalian species )
RTECS®- Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 1978PYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells (rat emb)
RTECS®- Mutagenesis 1988PYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (mouse lym)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells (mouse lym)
RTECS®- Mutagenesis 1989PYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (non-mammalian species mul)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1984PYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells ( human oth)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1985PYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1988PYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (mouse lym)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1989PYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange ( human lym)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2000PYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human leu)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2002PYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2004PYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2004PYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2005PYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (mouse emb)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2008PYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (hamster fbr)
RTECS®- Proceedings, National Cancer Conference 1965PYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Adduct (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1981PYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1981PYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (hamster kdy)
RTECS®- Toxicology 1981PYRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis ( human fbr)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)EC (Environment Canada). 1994. Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET). ARET substance list of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals.
OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible ConcernOSPAR (Oslo-Paris). 2002. OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR. Place Published, OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environement of North-East Atlanic.
Emerging PBTs from peer-reviewed literatureEmerging PBTs from peer-reviewed literature
EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1998. Resource Conservatin and Recovery Act (RCRA) Waste Minimization Program - priority chemicals for elimination or reduction.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
RTECS®- "Sbornik Vysledku Toxixologickeho Vysetreni Latek A Pripravku," Marhold, J 1972RTECS®- "Sbornik Vysledku Toxixologickeho Vysetreni Latek A Pripravku," Marhold, J.V., Institut Pro Vychovu Vedoucicn Pracovniku Chemickeho Prumyclu Praha, Czechoslovakia, 1972 -,26,1972
RTECS®- Biochemical Journal 1968RTECS®- Biochemical Journal. (Biochemical Soc. Book Depot, POB 32, Commerce Way, Colchester, Essex CO2 8HP, UK) V.1- 110,159,1968
RTECS®- Cancer Research 1971RTECS®- Cancer Research. (Public Ledger Building, Suit 816, 6th & Chestnut Sts., Philadelphia, PA 19106) V.1- 31,1118,1971
RTECS®- Cancer Research 1982RTECS®- Cancer Research. (Public Ledger Building, Suit 816, 6th & Chestnut Sts., Philadelphia, PA 19106) V.1- 42,3010,1982
RTECS®- Developments in Toxicology and Environtal Science 1977RTECS®- Developments in Toxicology and Environtal Science. (Elsevier Science, New York, NY) V.1-15, 1977-87. Discontinued 2,249,1977
RTECS®- Eisei Shikenjo Hokoku 1985RTECS®- Eisei Shikenjo Hokoku. Bulletin of the Institute of Hygienic Sciences. (Kokuritsu Eisei Shikenjo Kagaku, 18-1 Bushitsu Johobu, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158, Japan) V.1- (103),64,1985
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1988RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 12,21,1988
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1983RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis. (New York, NY) V.1-9, 1979-87. For publisher information, see EMMUEG. 5,1,1983
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1984RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis. (New York, NY) V.1-9, 1979-87. For publisher information, see EMMUEG. 6(Suppl 2),1,1984
RTECS®- Gann Monograph 1968RTECS®- Gann Monograph. (Tokyo, Japan) No.1-10, 1966-71. For publisher information, see GMCRDC. 6,49,1968
RTECS®- Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 1978RTECS®- Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. (Hemisphere Pub., 1025 Vermont Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 4,79,1978
RTECS®- Mutagenesis 1988RTECS®- Mutagenesis. (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 3,193,1988
RTECS®- Mutagenesis 1989RTECS®- Mutagenesis. (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 4,17,1989
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1984RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 130,127,1984
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1985RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 147,79,1985
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1988RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 203,155,1988
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1989RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 211,77,1989
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2000RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 468,93,2000
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2002RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 515,85,2002
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2004RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 557,99,2004
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2004RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 558,181,2004
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2005RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 588,7,2005
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2008RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 650,96,2008
RTECS®- Proceedings, National Cancer Conference 1965RTECS®- Proceedings, National Cancer Conference. (Philadelphia, PA) V.1-7, 1949-72. For publisher information, see CANCAR. 5,39,1965
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1981RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. Co., Inc., 52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York, NY 10017) V.1- 1,387,1981
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1981RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. Co., Inc., 52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York, NY 10017) V.1- 1,626,1981
RTECS®- Toxicology 1981RTECS®- Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 21,151,1981

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